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Title: The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography

Author: B. Franklin Edmands

Release date: September 24, 2018 [eBook #57971]

Language: English

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*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOSTON SCHOOL ATLAS, EMBRACING A COMPENDIUM OF GEOGRAPHY ***

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (1)

EMBRACING
A COMPENDIUM OF GEOGRAPHY.

BY B. FRANKLIN EDMANDS.

Table of Contents.

PREFACE.
ELEMENTAL GEOGRAPHY.3
EXPLANATION OF MAPS.5
GRAND DIVISIONS OF THE EARTH.17
CIVIL AND POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY.17
STATE OF SOCIETY.18
NORTH AMERICA.21
UNITED STATES.25
MAINE.26
NEW HAMPSHIRE.... and ... VERMONT.31
MASSACHUSETTS, CONNECTICUT, AND RHODE ISLAND.32
NEW YORK.37
PENNSYLVANIA, MARYLAND, NEW JERSEY, AND DELAWARE.38
WESTERN STATES.43
UNITED STATES.44
SOUTH AMERICA.57
EUROPE.61
BRITISH ISLES.65
ASIA.69
AFRICA.73
GENERAL QUESTIONS.74
WEST INDIA ISLANDS.75
OCEANICA.75
ELEMENTAL ASTRONOMY.76
TIDES.77
QUESTIONS IN REVIEW OF THE COMPENDIUM.78

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (2)

TWELFTH EDITION; STEREOTYPED,

CONTAINING THE FOLLOWING MAPS AND CHARTS.

1.MAP OF THE WORLD.
2.CHART ... MOUNTAINS.
3.CHART ... RIVERS.
4.NORTH AMERICA.
5.UNITED STATES.
6.PART OF MAINE.
7..
8.MASSACHUSETTS, CONNECTICUT, AND R. ISLAND.
9.NEW YORK.
10.PENN. MD., N. JER. AND DEL.
11.WESTERN STATES.
12.CHART ... CANALS, RAIL ROADS.
13.CHART ... POLITICAL AND STATISTICAL.
14.SOUTH AMERICA.
15.EUROPE.
16.BRITISH ISLES.
17.ASIA.
18.AFRICA.

Embellished with Instructive Engravings.

BOSTON:
PUBLISHED BY ROBERT S. DAVIS,

SUCCESSOR TO LINCOLN, EDMANDS, & CO.,
No. 77, Washington Street.

1840.

PREFACE.

A careful examination of Maps is a sure and at the same time the mostconvenient method of acquiring a knowledge of Geography. With a viewof furnishing to young classes an economical means of commencing acourse of geographical study, this work has been prepared; and it isbelieved that a thorough acquaintance with its contents will impartsuch general ideas, as will prepare them to enter upon a more minuteinvestigation of the subject, when they shall have arrived at a proper age.

The use of this work will also obviate the necessity which hasheretofore existed, of furnishing such classes with larger volumes, thegreater part of which is useless to them, till the book is literallyworn out; and although it is adapted to young students, it will befound that the Atlas exercises are equally proper for more advanced pupils.

The study of this work should commence with recitations of shortlessons previously explained by the instructer; and after the pupilsare well versed in the elements, the study of the maps should becommenced. Embodied with the questions on the maps will be occasionallyfound questions in italic, referring to the elements. These areintended as a review, and the pupils should be made to understand, thatthrough the whole of the maps, the instructer will require a similarreview of the Geography. This course cannot fail to be interesting andadvantageous.

The elements of Astronomy are annexed to the work; and it is leftto the discretion of the instructer to determine the proper time tointroduce this pleasing study to his pupils.

BOSTON, AUGUST, 1830.

ADVERTIsem*nT TO THE SIXTH (STEREOTYPE) EDITION.

The universal approbation and liberal patronage bestowed upon theformer editions of the Boston School Atlas, have induced the publishersto make in this edition numerous improvements. The maps have allbeen re-engraved on steel, and in pursuance of hints from severalinstructers, a concise compendium of descriptive Geography has beenadded, while at the same time the text of the preceding edition hasnot been so altered as to cause confusion in the use of the twoeditions in the same class. Many engravings calculated to instruct,rather than merely to amuse, have been interspersed, to render thebook more attractive and useful to pupils. The work, in addition tobeing stereotyped, has been kept as much as possible free from subjectsliable to changes, in order that it may be a permanent Geography,which may hereafter be used without the inconvenience of variations indifferent reprints.

THE INDUCTIVE SYSTEM has deservedly become the most popular methodof imparting instruction to the youthful mind, and may be used withas much advantage in the study of Geography as of any other science.To compile treatises of Geography on this plan, with the necessaryarrangement of the maps adapted to every place, would multiply themindefinitely. The Inductive System, however, can be used with advantagein the study of this book by pursuing the following course. Let theInstructer describe to the pupils the town in which they reside, andrequire them to become familiar with its boundaries, rivers, ponds,hills, &c. After this is accomplished, the map of the State should belaid before them, and the situation of the town should be pointed out,and they should be told what a State is, and what towns are nearestthem, &c. This plan can be carried to any extent the instructer maythink necessary to enable his pupils to acquire a correct knowledge oftheir own State; and, if necessary, he should write for them additionalquestions of a local nature, beside those contained in the work. If thetown be not on the map, it should be inserted with a pen on all themaps used in the class. After the pupils shall have acquired a correctidea of their own State, they may be taught respecting the adjoiningStates, countries, &c. and the plan may be pursued as successfully asif they possessed an Atlas with maps arranged in particular referenceto their own place of residence.

BOSTON, JUNE 17, 1833.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1832, by Lincolnand Edmands, in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of theDistrict of Massachusetts.

RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE
BOSTON SCHOOL ATLAS.

From R. G. Parker, Author of “Progressive Exercisesin English Composition,” and other popular works.

I have examined a copy of the Boston School Atlas, and have nohesitation in recommending it as the best introduction to the study ofGeography that I have seen. The compiler has displayed much judgmentin what he has omitted, as well as what he has selected; and hasthereby presented to the public a neat manual of the elements of thescience, unencumbered with useless matter and uninteresting detail. Themechanical execution of the work is neat and creditable, and I doubtnot that its merits will shortly introduce it to general use.

Respectfully yours, 
R. G. PARKER.

From E. Bailey, Principal of the Young Ladies’ High School, Boston.

I was so well pleased with the plan and execution of the Boston SchoolAtlas, that I introduced it into my school, soon after the firstedition was published. I regard it as the best work for beginners inthe study of Geography which has yet fallen under my observation; assuch I would recommend it to the notice of parents and teachers.

Very respectfully, 
E. BAILEY.

From the Preceptors of Leicester Academy.

Among the great variety of school-books which have recently beenpublished, few are in our opinion more valuable than the Boston SchoolAtlas. As an introduction to the study of Geography, it is preferableto any work of the kind with which we are acquainted.

JOHN RICHARDSON,
ALBERT SPOONER.

From the Principal of New Ipswich (N. H.) Academy.

I have with much pleasure examined the copy of the Boston School Atlas,which you politely sent to me. I think it admirably well calculatedto excite in the young mind a love of the study of Geography, and toconvey correct ideas of the rudiments of that science. I shall be happyto recommend it wherever I have opportunity. It is, in my opinion, thevery thing that is needed in our primary schools.

Respectfully yours, 
ROBERT A. COFFIN.

From Mr. Emerson, formerly a Teacher in Boston.

I have examined the Boston School Atlas, and I assure you, I am highlypleased with it. It appears to me to contain exactly what it should, torender it an easy and adequate introduction to the study of Geography.

Yours, respectfully, 
F. EMERSON.

From Rev. Benj. F. Farnsworth, Principal of the New Hampton Literaryand Theological Seminary.

I have long lamented the deficiency of school-books in the elementaryparts of education. A good introduction to the study of Geography hasbeen much needed. The Boston School Atlas, recently published by you,appears well; and I think it should be preferred to most other works ofthe same class. I know of none that could be used with equal advantagein its place. I hope you may succeed in making School Committees andTeachers acquainted with this Introduction to an interesting andimportant study of our primary schools; as I doubt not that, in thiscase, it may obtain a very desirable patronage.

Yours, respectfully, 
BENJ. F. FARNSWORTH.

From the United States Literary Advertiser, Boston.

This is one of the most beautiful elementary works of the kind,which has yet come within the range of our observation. The Maps areelegantly executed, and finely colored—and the whole work is got up ina style that cannot fail to insure its general introduction into ourschools, as a most valuable standard book.

From the Principal of one of the High Schools in Portland.

I have examined the Boston School Atlas, Elements of Geography, &c.,and think it admirably adapted to beginners in the study of theseveral subjects treated on. It is what is wanted in all books forlearners,—simple, philosophical, and practical. I hope it willbe used extensively.

Yours respectfully, 
JAS. FURBISH.

From Mr. Emerson, Author of the Spelling and Reading Books.

I have perused your Boston School Atlas with much satisfaction. Itseems to me to be what has been needed as an introduction to the studyof Geography, and admirably adapted to that purpose.

Very respectfully, yours, &c., 
B. D. EMERSON.

From Rev. Dr. Perry, of E. Bradford.

I received, some months since, the Boston School Atlas, and havinggiven it a trial among my children, I am free to say, that I think itvery happily adapted to the wants and conveniences of beginners inGeography, and hope it may get into extensive use.

Respectfully, 
GARDNER B. PERRY.

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (3)

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ELEMENTAL GEOGRAPHY.

The Earth, on which we live, is nearly around body, the distance through the centre from north to south,being twenty-six miles less, than the distance through from westto east. That it is a round body is proved, 1st, By having beencircumnavigated, or sailed round; 2d, From the appearance of a vesselapproaching the land, the top of the masts being seen first; 3d,By the shadow of the earth upon the moon, during an eclipse of the moon.

A VIEW OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE, VIZ.
MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, OCEAN, ISLAND, &c.

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (4)

MINE. GROTTO.

This cut represents, in a striking manner, themines and caverns as they exist under the land and ocean. The mine hereexhibited, is a picture of a salt mine in Poland, Europe. The grotto isunder the island Antiparos in the Mediterranean Sea. A mine is a cavernmade by man, in digging for the articles found in the earth. A grottois a cavern formed by nature.

Physical Geography, or Geography of theEarth, is a description of the earth’s structure and surface. Thesurface consists of two elements, viz, water and land; only one-thirdpart being land.

Civil or Political Geography definesthe boundaries and extent of the various countries in possession ofthe different nations of the earth. Civil Geography also treats ofgovernment, religion, commerce, the characteristic features of theprincipal races of men, and various other subjects.

Statistical Geography is a description of States,Kingdoms, Empires, or Cities, with reference to their population and resources.[Pg 4]

WATER.

Comprises Oceans, Seas, Lakes, Gulfs or Bays, Havens or Harbours,Straits, Channels, Sounds, and Rivers.

An Ocean is a large expanse of water notseparated by land.

A Sea is a lesser extent of water than anocean, almost surrounded by land.

A Lake is a large collection of water inthe interior of a country;—generally fresh. A salt water lake is calleda Sea.

A Gulf or Bayis a part of the sea extending up into the land.

A Haven or Harbour is a small portion of water, almostenclosed by land, where ships may lie safely at anchor.

A Strait is a narrow communicationbetween two large collections of water. If it be so shallow as to besounded, it is called a Sound.

A Channel is the deepest part of a river.A Strait is also sometimes called a Channel.

The vapours which rise from the surface of the earth ascend to theclouds, whence they fall in dew, snow, or rain, to water the earth, andsupply springs, and small streams or rivers.

A River is an inland stream of waterflowing from an elevated portion of land into some larger streamor body of water. The commencement of a river is called itsSOURCE, or RISE;the direction to which it flows, its COURSE;and its communication with any other water, its MOUTH.

If the mouth of a river, which flows into an ocean or seabe wide, and is affected by tides, it is called anEstuary or Frith.

A Cataract or Falls is formed by a sudden declivity or precipicein the course of a river, over which the water falls with great force.

A Canal is an artificial passage forwater, supplied from an elevated lake or river; and is constructed forthe purpose of inland navigation. Canals often pass under mountainsand over rivers.

Standing water, and low grounds filled with water, are called Morasses, Bogs, andFens; or, as in the United States,Swamps.

LAND.

Is divided into Continents, Islands, Peninsulas, Isthmuses, andCapes; and is diversified by Plains, Mountains, and Valleys.

A Continent is a large tract of landnowhere entirely separated by water. There are two continents, viz. theWestern and Eastern.

An Island is a portion of land surroundedby water.

A Peninsula is a portion of land almostsurrounded by water.

An Isthmus is the neck of land whichjoins a peninsula to the main land.

A Cape is a point of land,projecting into the sea. A mountainous Cape is called a Promontory.

A Plain is a large extent of levelcountry. A plain naturally destitute of trees is called a Prairie; when entirely destitute of vegetation, itis called a Desert.

A Mountain is a lofty elevationof land. If it send forth smoke and flame, it is called a Volcano.

The opening at the top of a volcano, from whence issues the flame,smoke, &c., is called a Crater.

If the elevation of a mountain be small, it is then called a Hill.

A Valley is a tract of land, bounded byhills, and generally watered by a river.

A Shore or Coastis that part of the land which borders upon a body of water.[Pg 5]

EXPLANATION OF MAPS.

A Map is a picture of the whole, or of apart, of the Earth’s surface, on a plane or level. Generally the topof a map represents north; the right hand side, east; the bottom,south; the left hand side, west. West, east, north, and south, arecalled the Cardinal Points.

Young persons in studying maps, imbibe an idea that the top of amap represents the highest part of a country; but this is a greatmistake, as will be at once seen, by looking at the maps, and findingmany rivers flow north, and recollecting that water cannot flow uphill. That part of a country is the most elevated, which containsmountains, and where rivers have their source.

Cities and towns are represented on maps by an o; rivers,by black lines running irregularly; mountains, by dark shades;deserts, by clusters of small dots; boundaries, by dotted lines.

The Axis of the earth is an imaginaryline passing through its centre from north to south. The extremities ofthe Axis are called the Poles.

The Equator or Equinox,is an imaginary circle, surrounding the Earth from west to east, at an equaldistance from the poles. See Map of the World, fig. 2.

A Meridian, or Line of Longitude, is acircle crossing the equator at right angles, and passing through thepoles. See fig. 4.

Parallels of Latitude, are lines, drawnacross maps, representing circles equally distant in every part fromthe equator. See fig. 3.

The Tropics are two circles parallel tothe equator, at about 23 degrees and 28 minutes from it. The northernis called, the Tropic of Cancer; and the southern, the Tropic ofCapricorn. See fig. 2.

The Polar Circles are drawn at 23 degreesand 28 minutes from the poles. The northern, is the Arctic, and thesouthern, the Antarctic Circle. See fig. 2.

A Degree is the 360th part of a circle,and contains 69½ English miles; each degree is divided into 60 equalparts, called minutes; and each minute into 60 equal parts, calledseconds. They are marked (°) degrees, (’) minutes, (”) seconds.

The Longitude of a place, is its distancefrom any given meridian, as Washington, London, or Greenwich, and isreckoned in degrees, &c. on the equator. Longitude is marked infigures, either on the equator, or at the top and bottom of the map,and can be reckoned only 180 degrees east or west, that distance beinghalf of a circle. Longitude, on most of these maps, is reckoned fromthe meridian of Greenwich, near London.

The Latitude of a place is its distancein degrees, &c. north or south from the equator, and is expressedin figures on the sides of the map. Latitude can never exceed 90degrees.

The Zones are portions of the Earth’ssurface divided by the tropics and polar circles. There are fivezones, viz. one torrid, two temperate, and two frigid zones.See Map of the World, fig. 1.

The Torrid Zone is included between the tropics, and isdistinguished for extreme heat, and luxuriant vegetation; the climateis generally unhealthy.

The Temperate Zones are included between the tropics and thepolar circles; they have a healthy climate, and produce the greatestabundance of the most useful commodities.

The Frigid Zones lie between the polar circles and the poles, andare remarkable for extreme coldness of climate and general barrennessof soil.

A Hemisphere is half a globe. The map ofthe world is divided into the western and eastern Hemispheres; and theequator divides it into northern and southern Hemispheres.

The Diameter of the earth, that is, thedistance through its centre, is about eight thousand miles; and itsCircumference, that is, the distance roundit, is about twenty-five thousand miles.

In tracing the relative situation of places, the pupil mustremember to follow the direction of the parallels and meridians, andnot be governed merely by the apparent direction of one place fromanother. Thus, on the map of the world, Iceland appears north fromNewfoundland, but it is northeast. Therefore, the direction towards thetop and bottom of maps is not always exactly north and south; but togo north you must proceed toward the north pole; and south, toward thesouth pole;—following the direction of the lines.

The preceding principles should be rendered asperfectly familiar to the pupil as the letters of the alphabet. Tosecure this object, the learner is required, in the following pages,to define a continent, an ocean, latitude, longitude, &c. inconnexion with the subject of questions on the maps. It will also beuseful, after the pupil has passed the map of the world, frequently torequire similar definitions to be repeated, when naturally suggested bythe subject, and thus impress the learner with the necessity of beingalways prepared to answer them. This method furnishes a general reviewof Elemental Geography through the whole course of studying the maps,and will give variety and pleasure to the exercise.[Pg 6]

QUESTIONS ON THE MAP OF THE WORLD.

N. B. The Questions in Italics are to be answered by referring to thepreceding elementary principles.

1. Of what two elements is the surface of the earth composed? 2.Of which is there the greater part?

3. How is land divided? 4. What is a Continent, and how many arethere? 5. Which contains the more land? 6. By what is the surfaceof the land diversified? 7. Asia, Europe, Africa, and America, arecalled the Grand Divisions of the earth;—which of them is largest? 8.Which is smallest? 9. How is North America bounded? 10. South America?11. Europe? 12. Asia? 13. Africa? 14. Which way is South America fromAfrica? 15. Europe from North America?

16. What is an Island? 17. What large island lies south fromAsia? 18. Where is New Zealand? 19. Which are the principal of theEast India Islands? 20. Of the West India Islands? 21. Of Australasia?22. Of Polynesia? 23. Australasia, Polynesia, and the East IndiaIslands, are sometimes embraced under the general name Oceanica;—which of these groups contains thelargest islands? 24. Where is Owhyhee, where Capt. Cook was slain? 25.St. Helena, where Bonaparte ended his life?

26. What is a Peninsula? 27. Which of the divisions of the Easterncontinent is a peninsula? 28. Is South America properly a peninsula oran island?

29. What is an Isthmus? 30. What isthmus connects Asia withAfrica? 31. North with South America?

32. What is a Cape? 33. Which are the principal capes of NewZealand? 34. Where is the Cape of Good Hope? 35. Cape Horn? 36. Whichis further south?

37. What is a Plain? 38. A Prairie? 39. A Desert? 40.A Mountain? 41. A Hill? 42. A Volcano? 43. A Crater?44. In which Grand Division is the Great Desert?

45. What is a Valley? 46. A Shore or coast? 47. What part ofthe coast of North America approaches nearest to Asia? 48. What oceanwashes the eastern coast of America? 49. The western? 50. What seaforms the northern boundary of Africa?

51. What does Water comprise? 52. What is an Ocean? 53. Name theoceans. 54. Which is the largest? 55. What is a Sea? 56. Where is theCaspian sea? 57. Yellow sea? 58. Chinese sea? 59. The Sea of Ochotsk?60. The Mediterranean sea? 61. The Black sea? 62. The Red Sea? 63. TheCaribbean sea? 64. The Aral sea? 65. The Arctic sea, or ocean? 66. TheAntarctic?

67. What is a Lake? 68. Which contains the largest lakes, thewestern or eastern hemisphere? 69. Which is the largest lake in theworld? 70. Where is it situated? 71. Which is the largest lake on theeastern hemisphere? 72. In which of the Grand Divisions is it?

73. What is a Gulf or bay? 74. Where is Hudson’s bay? 75. Baffin’sbay? 76. Gulf of Mexico?

77. What is a Haven or harbour? 78. A Strait? 79. Where areHudson’s straits? 80. Davis’ straits? 81. Straits of Gibraltar?

82. What is a River? 83. Where is Mackenzie’s river? 84. TheAmazon river? 85. The Senegal river? 86. What is meant by the rise,course, and mouth of a river? 87. If the mouth of a river be wide,and is affected by tides, what is it called?

88. What is a Cataract? 89. A Morass or Swamp?

90. What is the Equator? 91. What countries does it intersect?92. Which of the East India Islands does it intersect? 93. Into whatdoes the equator divide the earth?

94. What countries does the tropic of Cancer cross? 95. The tropicof Capricorn?

96. What is a Hemisphere? 97. What islands in the westernhemisphere are under the equator? 98. What is a Degree, and into howmany is the equator divided? 99. How many degrees is the equator fromthe poles?

100. What is a Meridian? 101. What is Longitude? 102. Whatis the longitude of Madagascar? 103. Of the Azores? 104. Of Ireland?

105. What is Latitude? 106. What are Parallels of latitude?107. What is the latitude of New York? 108. Of London? 109. Of Canton?110. Of Spitzbergen? 111. How many degrees further north is Pekin thanCanton? 112. Boston than Morocco? 113. What are the Tropics?114. What are the Polar circles?

115. What are Zones? 116. What countries are in the TorridZone? 117. What in the Northern Temperate? 118. What in the SouthernTemperate? 119. Has much land been discovered in the Frigid Zones?

120. What oceans, seas, &c. must a shipnavigate in sailing from Boston to Canton? 121. From New York to Rome?122. From the Island Jamaica to Otaheite? 123. In which of thesevoyages would the ship pass the Cape of Good Hope? 124. In which, Cape Horn?[Pg 7]

[Click anywhere on map for high resolution image.]

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SURFACE OF THE EARTH.

In a general point of view, the surface of the earth may properlybe considered as one vast ocean, in which are placed a great numberof islands, whose sizes are various. Two of these islands are calledCONTINENTS;—because it has hitherto beenimpossible to sail round them, owing to the frozen state of the watersof the Arctic seas. That which has been for the longer space of timeinhabited by civilized nations, is called the eastern, or oldcontinent, and contains Asia, Europe, and Africa. The other comprisesAmerica, and is named the western, or new continent. New Holland,a large tract of land situated in the midst of the most extensive massof waters, is by some called a continent; but it is more proper toconsider it as the largest island in existence. An island differs froma continent only in size, and the name continent is given to certainextensive portions of land, for the sake of convenience in geographicaldescriptions.

The bottom of the basin of the ocean has irregularities, similar tothose seen on the surface of the land; and, if the waters were driedup, would present to view, mountains, valleys, and plains. Islands aretherefore, the flattened tops of mountains, situated in the midst ofthe sea. Immense masses of rocks are found in many places under thewater, and often rise so near the surface, that they are dangerousto navigation. Near Marseilles, there is a quarry under the sea,from which marble is obtained. These facts prove that the sea is notbottomless, as some people suppose, although there are some places sodeep that no bottom has yet been found. It has been supposed, by manygeographers, that the depth of the abysses of the ocean, are equal tothe heights of mountains on land, and therefore that the ocean is in noplace more than thirty thousand feet deep. The greatest depth thathas ever been measured without finding bottom, is four thousand sixhundred and eighty feet.

The chief characteristic of the ocean, is the saltness of its waters,which renders them disagreeable to the taste, and unfit for the use ofman. Thus mariners are often, although surrounded by water, in dangerof perishing from thirst, when their supply of fresh water has beenexhausted, while they are yet at a great distance from land. The causeof this saltness is not yet ascertained. It is supposed that by theconstant agitation of the waters the ocean preserves its purity.

The Arctic ocean is constantly frozen over,and immense pieces of ice become detached, and being driven about inthe ocean, are often dangerous to navigators. Some of them are morethan a mile long, and rise to the height of one hundred and fifty feet;others rise but a few feet above the waves, and form floating fields ofice of great extent. These fields are often visited by the natives ofGreenland, in their canoes, while pursuing their seal fisheries. Shipsare sometimes, while sailing in these dangerous waters, surrounded andcrushed between these masses of ice.

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FLOATING ICE-FIELD AND ISLANDS.

The form which the shores of the land presents is very irregular;in consequence of which, the ocean extends towards the interior ofcountries, and thus forms inland seas, gulfs, &c. which are in realityparts of the ocean, detached, but not separated from it. The differentnames, as sea, bay, &c. are given for the sake of convenience.

The level of the sea is nearly the same in all parts of the globe,except in some inland seas, &c. For this reason all the measurements ofthe heights of places and mountains are calculated from this level.[Pg 10]

GRAND DIVISIONS OF THE OCEAN.

The ocean is subdivided into portions, which are known by differentnames, viz. the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic or Northern, andAntarctic or Southern oceans. The situation of these may be seen byreference to the map of the world.

The Atlantic ocean varies in extent, from seven hundred to fourthousand miles in breadth from west to east, and is nine thousand milesin length.

The Pacific ocean extends from north to south about eight thousandmiles, and from west to east about eleven thousand miles,—almost halfround the globe.

The Indian ocean extends from north to south about four thousand miles,and from west to east varies from twenty-five hundred to six thousand miles.

The Northern ocean is encircled by the coasts of the two continents.Its greatest extent in one direction is computed to be three thousand miles.

The Southern ocean lies south from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indianoceans, and surrounds the south pole.

The most remarkable phenomenon which occursthroughout the extent of the ocean is the Maelstrom. This is awhirlpool by which a ship or any thing which comes within the reach ofthe circling current is swallowed up.

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THE MAELSTROM.

This whirlpool is in theAtlantic ocean, near the coast of Norway, Europe.

MOUNTAINS, &c.

Mountains form the principal feature which presents itself on viewingthe surface of the land. These immense heights have their descents,more or less steep, and their exteriors greatly diversified. Someof them present a surface of naked and rugged rocks piled one uponanother; others show an abrupt and almost perpendicular surface, whichconveys to an observer an idea that the mountain has been cut from topto bottom, so as to show the interior. Sometimes mountains seem, whenviewed from particular points, to show the form of the head of a tiger,a bear, a man’s face, &c.

Some are composed of columns of basaltic rock,so regularly formed and disposed that they seem to have been formed byart. The columns are five or six sided, and appear to be divided intojoints, at intervals of about thirty feet. The Giant’s Causeway inIreland, is a remarkable instance of this natural curiosity.

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GIANT’S CAUSEWAY.

At this place there are ranges of these columns which extend intothe sea several hundred feet, and their tops present an almost levelsurface of pavement.

Mountains have often large cavities in their interiors. In Norway,Europe, there is a remarkable instance of a singular natural formationof a mountain. Mount Torghat is pierced through with an opening onehundred and fifty feet high, and three thousand long; at certainseasons of the year the sun lights up the interior of this passagefrom one end to the other.[Pg 11]

Defiles or passes are narrow natural openingsor roads through a chain of mountains, and often form the onlycommunication from one part of a country to the other. There is afamous defile of this kind at the Cape of Good Hope, Africa, which iscalled Holland’s Kloffe.

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HOLLAND’S KLOFFE.

This pass is so situated that it forms the only communication fromthe country of the Hottentots to the country beyond the mountains. Onehundred men could here successfully oppose the march of an immense army.

A defile sometimes forms the bed of a river,by which means the stream passes through a chain of mountains. In theUnited States there is an instance of this, where the opposite sidesof the defile are connected together at the top by a natural bridge of rock.

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NATURAL BRIDGE, VIRGINIA, U.S.

A Plateau is a plain of immense extent,which is formed of an extensive surface of elevated land. Some plateausare eight thousand feet above the level of the sea. Lofty mountainsoften rise from these plateaus, many of which are volcanic.

Volcano is a word taken from the namewhich the Romans gave to the God of Fire. It now designates thosemountains which are subject to eruptions of fire, smoke, stones,and lava. The irruption of a volcano is a most awful and majesticphenomenon. The earth is shaken, and rumbling noises are heard, whichsound like thunder. Smoke and fire begin to issue from the top of themountain.

Suddenly the fire becomes extinguished, andred-hot stones are thrown out; then the crater is filled with a burningliquid called lava, which looks like metal in a melted state. At last,the lava overflows the sides of the crater, and runs down the sidesof the mountain, destroying every thing which lies in its path, andcovering cities and cultivated fields with a sea of burning matter.Sometimes the lava is too heavy to be elevated to the summit, andbursts out from the side of the mountain.

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CRATER OF MOUNT ETNA.

The cities Herculaneum and Pompeii, in Italy, were entirely destroyed,A. D. 79, by an irruption of Vesuvius.

Herculaneum was discovered by digging away the ashes and lava, in theyear 1713. Pompeii was discovered about forty years afterwards.[Pg 12]

The height of mountains is measured from the level of the sea.

The highest mountains in the world are the Himmaleh mountains,in Asia.

The second in point of elevation are the Andes mountains,in South America; Chimborazo is the highest peak.

The highest mountain in North America is Mount Elias,—in Europe,Mont Blanc,—in Africa, the Atlas mountains.

A traveller in South America has lately asserted, that he hasdiscovered a mountain in Peru, which is higher than the Himmalehmountains in Asia. If this be a fact, it will probably soon beconfirmed by the testimony of other travellers.

The highest volcanic mountain in the world is Cotopaxi, one of theAndes, in South America. Other celebrated volcanoes are Popocatepetl,in North America,—Mount Etna, Stromboli, and Vesuvius, inEurope,—and Mount Hecla, in Iceland.

Mountains are sometimes found standing alone; but generally many ofthem are united in a range, or ridge, which extends many miles, and,in some instances, through the whole extent of a continent.

In ascending mountains it will be found, thatas you proceed towards the top, the climate grows continually colder;and after passing beyond the height of about 17,000 feet from thelevel of the sea, you arrive at a region where snow and ice cover theground during the whole year. This contributes much to the coolness andsalubrity of the climate of countries where such high mountains arefound.

COMPARATIVE HEIGHTS OF MOUNTAINS.

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COMPARATIVE LENGTHS OF RANGES OF MOUNTAINS.

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[Pg 13]Small streams are called Brooks, Rivulets, and sometimes Creeks.In the study of the maps they are called branches of rivers.

Many small streams, being formed in the mountainous and otherelevated parts of a country, flow together, and form a large current ofwater which takes the name of a river, and is constantly augmented inits course, by other brooks, &c. and by rain, until it dischargesitself into an ocean, sea, lake, or some other river.

The length of rivers has not been so definitely ascertained asthe height of mountains. The length of the same river varies in thestatements of different geographers, and this difference is owing tothe principles on which their measurements are made, some measuring thewindings of the river, and others only the valleys through which theyflow.

The longest and largest river in the world is the Amazon, in South America. It is more than 150miles wide at its junction with the Atlantic ocean. The body of wateris so great that it constantly flows into the ocean, and is notaffected by tides. The commotion caused by the meeting of the tide andthe current of the river, sometimes renders navigation dangerous.

The longest rivers in North America are theMissouri and Mississippi.

The longest river in Asia is the Kian Ku.In Europe, the Volga. In Africa, the Nile.

The Missouri flows into the Mississippi about 1300 miles from itsmouth, and is, in fact, the main river. And the length of the Missouriis given, in the opposite table, from its source to the mouth of theMississippi.

The Missouri and Mississippi rivers, taken together, have no rivalin the world, for length of course, the size and number of theirtributaries, and the vast extent of country through which they flow.The Mississippi is called by the native Indians the ‘Father of Waters,’and the Missouri, the ‘Mother of Floods.’

COMPARATIVE LENGTHS OF RIVERS,

ACCORDING TO THE BEST AUTHORITIES.

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[Pg 14]Rivers are supplied with water principally from springs, and themelting of snow upon high mountains. Mountains attract clouds aroundtheir tops and sides, and by this means become saturated with water,which, finding its way through the fissures of the rocks, formssprings. In this manner probably all springs are formed, whether theyare found on mountains or plains. Heavy rains also augment the quantityof water, and often after a heavy fall of rain, many rivers are soswollen that the water overflows their banks, and the flood sweeps awayevery thing that is within its reach.

The Mississippi is subject to inundations during the spring, and thebanks of the river being higher than the adjacent country, the waternever returns to the river, but seeks other channels. These inundationsgreatly enrich the lands.

The banks or shores of rivers present verydifferent appearances, according to the formation of the land throughwhich they pass. The banks of some rivers are but little elevatedabove their level, and slope gently down to the water’s edge; othersflow through rocky channels, and are walled on each side with high andalmost perpendicular precipices.

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PASSAIC FALLS, NEW JERSEY, U. S.

Sometimes a precipice occurs immediately across the course of a river,and the water falling nearly perpendicularly over, forms a cataract or falls.

They are often obstructed by rapids which render navigation difficultand sometimes impracticable. A rapid is a gradual descent in the bed ofa river, where the current is swift, and the water shallow.

Some rivers suddenly disappear, by flowing into a chasm, and are lostin the earth. Some of these again issue from the earth at a greatdistance from where they disappeared.

Rivers present obstacles to the route ofroads, and many expedients have been invented by the ingenuity of manto obviate them. In many places bridges are built of wood, stone oriron; and where the current is too swift, or the channel too deep topermit a bridge to be built, the passage is made in boats. But the mostastonishing project that has been undertaken for this purpose is theTunnel under the river Thames, at London, England. A road is here dugout under the river, and is nearly completed. A view of the work isgiven in the cut.

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THAMES TUNNEL.

The tunnel consists of two brick archways for carriages, and two footpaths. The passages are divided by a line of arches, between thepillars of which are placed gas lights. This undertaking was commencedin the year 1825. The whole length is thirteen hundred feet, and eacharchway is about fourteen feet in width. The thickness of the earthbetween the bed of the river and the tunnel is about fifteen feet.

A country, possessed of large and navigable rivers, enjoys a greatblessing. They form a means of internal communication, by which theproductions of the inland country are brought to the city and seaport.Their currents are made use of, by the aid of machinery, to manufacturemany of the necessaries and luxuries of life.[Pg 15]

Many rivers whose waters are pure, afford water for the use of theinhabitants of neighboring cities.

London and Westminster, England, are suppliedfrom the New river; the water is here brought thirty-eight milesthrough a canal. The Schuylkill river in Pennsylvania, United States,supplies the city Philadelphia with good and wholesome water, for theuse of the inhabitants.

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VIEW OF THE PHILADELPHIA WATERWORKS.

These works are ingeniously constructed at FairMount on the eastern bank of the river. The water is raised by theaction of an engine, moved by the water power of the river itself, anddeposited in large reservoirs, from whence it is conveyed by iron pipesto every part of the city. The aggregate length of the pipes alreadylaid exceeds 63 miles. Three reservoirs have already been constructedwhich contain ten millions of gallons, and a fourth has been commencedwhich will contain ten millions more, being a quantity sufficient forthe use of the city Philadelphia ten days.

LAKES.

Lakes are of four distinct classes.

1. Those which have no streams of water runninginto nor from them. They are generally very small, and of littleconsequence.

2. Those which have streams flowing from them,but none flowing into them. These are mostly supplied with water fromsubterraneous springs. Some of this class form the sources of largerivers, and are generally situated on elevated land.

3. Those which have streams flowing both into andfrom them. These, by a continual flow of fresh river water, preservetheir clearness and sweetness; and often, besides the river which seemsto flow through them, have sources of their own near their shores, orfrom springs at their bottoms.[Pg 16]

4. The fourth class is ranked among the phenomenaof nature. They have no visible outlet, but receive the waters ofrivers which flow into them. The Caspian sea, in Asia, is an instanceof this kind. These lakes probably lose the surplus of their waters byevaporation produced by the heat of the sun.

The waters of lakes which receive their supply from springs andrivers, partake of their qualities. There are some lakes whose watersare exceedingly clear and transparent. Lake Wetter in Europe is solimpid that a piece of money can be seen at the bottom at 120 feet depth.

CAVERNS.

In many parts of the earth are found caverns, or deep cavities andgrottoes, which are remarkable on account of their great extent, andfor the grand and imposing appearance of the rocks which compose thesides and roof.

Fingal’s cave, in the island Staffa, one of thewestern islands of Scotland, is a noted cave.

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FINGAL’S CAVE.

It is thus described by a celebrated traveller. ‘The mind can hardlyform an idea more magnificent than such a space, supported on each sideby ranges of basaltic columns and roofed by the ends of those whichhave been broken off, between the angles of which, a yellow matter hasexuded, which serves to define the angles exactly, and at the same timevary the color with a great degree of elegance. To render it still moreimposing, the whole is lighted up from without, so that the farthestextremity is visible, and the air within being agitated by the motionof the water, is perfectly wholesome, and free from the noxious vaporswith which caverns are usually filled.’

Some caverns are of great depth, descending in some instances, eleventhousand feet. Others, after a descent, assume a horizontal direction,and are formed into many grottoes. The most remarkable grotto known,is the Grotto of the island Antiparos, in the Archipelago sea. Theprincipal chamber of this cavern is exhibited on page 3.

In many caverns, water is found at a great depth, and thiscirc*mstance, together with the fact that water is obtained by diggingdeep wells, seems to prove that there are sheets of water under ground,which extend to considerable distances.

MINERALS.

The earth contains many mineral substancesbeneath its surface, which are useful to man. These substances are dugout, and thus immense mines are formed. Gold and silver are obtained ingreat quantities in South America. Iron, the most useful of metals, isobtained in various parts of the world. Annexed is a representation ofthe iron mine at Dalmora, in Europe. The iron ore is not dug out as inmines of coal, tin, &c. but is torn up by means of gunpowder.

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IRON MINE.

The descent into this mine is by means of buckets attached to ropes.

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GRAND DIVISIONS OF THE EARTH.

The Earth has generally been considered by geographers under fourGrand Divisions, viz. America, Europe, Asia,and Africa. Besides these, there are four clusters of Islands, whichaccording to some geographers constitute other divisions, viz. Australasia,Polynesia, the East India Islands, and the West India Islands.

AMERICA is the largest of the divisions, and was unknown to thecivilized world till the year 1492, when it was discovered byChristopher Columbus. It however takes its name from AmericusVesputius, who came to the country about seven years after. The faceof the country is distinguished by lofty mountains and extensivelakes. Among its rivers are found the largest in the world.

Most of the metals, minerals, trees, plants,and fruits found on the other continent, are produced in abundance here,and many of them in greater perfection. The climate of America is found to beten degrees cooler than the climate of the other continent in the samelatitude.

EUROPE is the smallest of the divisions, but is distinguished above allthe others for its advancement in military power, and in civilisation,science, and literature.

ASIA is remarkable for having contained the “garden of Eden,” where ourfirst parents were placed. In this division, the Jewish, the Christian,and the Mahometan religions had their origin. Its soil is more fertilethan that of any other division, and its inhabitants more numerous.

AFRICA is less known than any of the other divisions. The greater partof the inhabitants are in a state of barbarism. Nearly three-quartersof Africa lie in the torrid zone, and the dark complexion and savagecharacter of the inhabitants, and the ferocity of its wild beasts, seemin unison with the excessive heat of the sun, and the frightful aspectof the deserts.

The West India Islands lie in the Atlantic Ocean,between North and South America, in the torrid zone. They belong principally toEuropean nations.

Australasia, Polynesia, and the East India Islands are sometimesincluded under the general name of Oceanica. These islandspresent every variety of surface and climate, and produce many of theluxuries of life in abundance. They also abound in volcanoes.

CIVIL AND POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY.

The principal Political Divisions, are Empires, Kingdoms,and Republics.

An Empire consists of several large countries,governed by one sovereign, called an emperor.

A Kingdom is generally of a lesser extent thanan empire, and is governed by a king.

If the power of an emperor, or of a king, be limited by law, thegovernment is called a limited monarchy; if there be no legalrestraint to the will of the sovereign, it is called an absolutemonarchy.

A Republic is a country, the government ofwhich is confided to persons elected, by the people, for a limited term.A Republic is generally composed of a union of States.

States, Provinces, Counties, Cities, Towns, &c. are still smallerdivisions of countries.

The principal Religions professed by the inhabitants of the earth, arethe Jewish, Pagan, Mahometan, and Christian.[Pg 18]

There are five principal races of men.

1. The Asian race are of a deep yellow or tawny color; have smalleyes, prominent cheek bones, and an abundance of straight black hair.

2. The Malay race are of a deep brown color; have broad noses andmouths, projecting foreheads, and black curled hair.

3. The African or black race have thick lips, flat noses, and blackwoolly hair; the head is compressed on each side, the forehead veryarched, and the chin drawn in.

4. The Native American race are of a copper color; have exceedinglyhigh cheek bones, and straight black hair.

5. The European race (which includes theinhabitants of the United States and all descendants of Europeansin every part of the earth) is distinguished from the other by theregularity and symmetry of their features and by their complexion,which is white mingled with red; they have straight hair. In warmclimates the European complexion takes a swarthy or brown color;but the original color, viz. white and red, always prevails in thecomplexion of the infants of this race in every climate. This race issupposed to have originated in the Caucasian countries in WesternAsia, and is sometimes called the Caucasian race.

A VIEW OF THE FEATURES WHICH DISTINGUISH
THE FIVE PRINCIPAL RACES OF MEN.

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STATE OF SOCIETY.

Nations are either Savage, Barbarous, Civilized, or Enlightened.

1. Savages are those who are ignorant of the art of writing, andwhose ideas are confined to objects which strike the senses. Theyare inclined to be superstitious, cruel, and revengeful, but are ingeneral free from the acquired vices of more enlightened people. Theylive together in tribes, and have a deadly hatred towards all othertribes. They delight in war, and are noted for the patient enduranceof fatigue, and contempt of pain. Some of the African tribes, and theNorth American Indians are of this class.

2. Barbarous, or half civilized nations, are those which by writtenlaws, religious ceremonies, or a partial advance in the arts of life,have evidently emerged from a savage state. Their progress towardscivilisation is slow, and as advance is made, their characteristicfierceness and barbarity give place to more regular habits. Cruelty tofemales is a characteristic of the savage and many of the barbarousnations.

3. Civilized nations are those which have arranged their knowledge, inthe form of arts and sciences. Females are in such nations treated withkindness.

4. Enlightened nations have brought the arts, sciences, religion, andlaws, to exert their greatest and best influence on mankind. In thesenations females are educated to be companions of the men, and aretreated with the greatest kindness and respect. The United States andsome parts of Europe are of this class.

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Published by Robert S. Davis Boston. H. Morse Sc.

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NORTH AMERICA.

1. By whom and in what year was America discovered? 2. After whomwas it named? 3. What is remarkable in the climate of America? 4.What are the principal divisions of North America? 5. In what part arethe British Possessions? 6. Mexico? 7. The United States? 8. Greenland?9. The Russian Possessions? 10. Guatimala? 11 to 16. How is each one ofthese divisions bounded?

17. What range of mountains extends through the whole length ofNorth America? 18. What is its course? 19. Near which coast is thisrange? 20. What range of mountains is in The United States? 21. Whichis the highest mountain in North America?

22. Which are the principal lakes? 23. Bays and gulfs? 24. How isLake Nicaragua situated? 25. Which is more northwardly, Hudson’s orBaffin’s bay? 26. Where is Repulse bay? 27. Wager? 28. James’s? 29.Bristol? 30. Campeachy? 31. Honduras? 32. Where is the Gulf of Darien?33. Gulf of Mexico? 34. Gulf of St. Lawrence?

35. What large river flows from the lakes, north from The UnitedSlates, to the Atlantic Ocean? 36. How is Lake Winnipeg connectedwith Hudson’s bay? 37. Slave lake with the Arctic sea? 38. Where isColumbia river? 39. What is its course? 40. Into what does it flow? 41.Which is the largest river in North America? 42. What rivers form theboundary, in part, between Mexico and The United States? 43. What riverflows into the Lake of the Hills? 44. Into the Gulf of Mexico? 45.Hudson’s bay? 46. Gulf of California?

47. How is America separated from Asia? 48. Newfoundland from NewBritain? 49. How is Baffin’s bay connected with the Atlantic ocean? 50.Where are Hudson’s straits? 51. How is Nootka sound situated?

52. Is California an isthmus or a peninsula? 53. Where is CapeFarewell? 54. Cape Mendocino? 55. Icy Cape? 56. What cape is at thesouthern extremity of Nova Scotia? 57. How many degrees further northis Cape Race, than Cape Corrientes?

58. What islands are near the western coast of North America? 59.What is the latitude of Vancouver’s Island? 60. How are the BahamaIslands separated from Florida? 61. Where are the West India Islands?62. Which of them is largest? 63. To what nations do they principallybelong? 64. Where is North Georgian Island?

65. In what part of the United States is the Oregon Territory? 66.The Missouri Territory? 67. In what part of the British Possessionsis Labrador? 68. Is the direction towards the top of a map alwaysexactly north, and towards the bottom always exactly south? 69.What directions are exactly north, and south? 70. Which way fromNewfoundland is Cape Farewell? 71. Which way from the northernextremity of Labrador is Cape Farewell? 72. Which way from the FoxIslands are Bhering’s straits?

73. On what island is Havanna? 74. Kingston? 75. Where is Quebec?76. Montreal? 77. How far south does Florida extend? 78. How is itbounded on the east and west? 79. Between what parallels of latitude dothe United States principally lie?

80. In what zone does North America principally lie? 81. Doesany part lie in the Northern Frigid Zone? 82. From what meridian islongitude computed on the map of North America? 83. Which way is St.John’s, the capital of Newfoundland, from New York? 84. Quebec fromMexico? 85. Halifax from Boston? 86. Which way from the Bermudaislands is Newfoundland?[Pg 22]

North America isdivided into portions belonging to different nations. It embracesevery variety of soil and climate, and its peculiar features are greatranges of mountains, long rivers, and extensive lakes. Previously toits discovery by Columbus, it was in possession of tribes of wanderingIndians, most of whom were savages. They were remarkable for strength,courage, and activity, and showed all the peculiarities incident to thesavage life, in the greatest degree.

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VIEW OF THE GREAT SQUARE, AT MEXICO.

Russian America is chiefly valuable on account of its fur trade. Itis an exceedingly cold country, and is still, mostly in possession ofnative Indians.

British America comprises Canada, New Wales, and Labrador, NewBrunswick, and the neighboring islands, together with the extent ofcountry between Hudson’s Bay and the Russian Possessions. Canada andNew Brunswick are the only parts which are settled by any considerablenumbers of civilized people, nine tenths of the country being stillinhabited by Indians.

Furs are the staple article of the commerce and trade of the country.The Northwest Fur Company have an establishment at Fort Chipawyan,where the Indians resort to sell their furs.

Mexico. The coasts of this country are level and low. Towards theinterior the land gradually rises, until it attains an elevation of6700 feet above the sea, and then forms an immense plateau. The climateis hot and unhealthy, except on the plateau, where it is salubrious.Mexico contains the richest gold and silver mines in the world, andthe pursuit of these treasures led the Spaniards, when they firstdiscovered the country, to oppress the natives.

The city Mexico is situated in the midst of this plateau, and issurrounded by mountains. It is one of the most magnificent cities inthe world;—its streets are regular, and its buildings truly elegant.The churches are adorned with gold and silver.

Above is the view of the great square. In the centre and opposite theCathedral, is an equestrian statue of Charles IV. on a pedestal ofmarble. This was cast in Mexico, and weighs 40,500 pounds. It is one ofthe handsomest monuments in the world.

Guatimala. The climate is like that of Mexico. Volcanoes abound, andnot less than twenty are constantly burning. Logwood and mahogany areobtained here in vast quantities.

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Published by Robert S. Davis, Boston. G. Boynton Sc.

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UNITED STATES.

Note. The pupil mustnot think that the opposite map gives a view of the whole extent of theterritory of the United States; it represents only that part which isdivided into States, and settled. A view of the whole is given on themap of North America; and by comparing the two maps, he will easilyunderstand what part is here represented.

1. The United States constitute a Republic; how is the governmentadministered? 2. How many States and Territories are in this Republic,including Oregon Territory? 3. How is Maine bounded? 4 to 30. How arethe other States and Territories severally bounded? 31. What States arenorth from the 40th parallel of latitude? 32. What south?

33. There is a range of mountains which extends almost through thewhole of the United States; what is its general course? 34. Throughwhat part of Virginia does it run? 35. What mountains are in Tennessee?36. In Alabama? 37. Where are the Lead Hills?

38. Is the water of lakes generally salt or fresh? 39. What lakeslie between the United States and Canada? 40. How is Lake Michigansituated? 41. Moose Head Lake? 42. Flambeau Lake? 43. Lake St. Clair?44. What lakes are near the source of the Mississippi river? 45. Whatis a lake called if its waters be salt?

46. What bays are located on the south coast of Florida? 47. Where isNarraganset bay? 48. What large gulf is south from the United States?

49. What is a Sound? 50. Where is Albemarle sound? 51. Pamlico sound?

52. What river rises in the northern part of Maine, and flowsthrough New Brunswick into the Atlantic? 53. What is the course ofthe Mississippi river? 54. Of what States does it form the easternboundary? 55. Of what the western? 56. What rivers flow into it fromthe east? 57. What from the west?

58. Of what state does the Ohio river form the northern boundary? 59.Of what states the southern? 60. Where is the Great Kanhawa river? 61.What is its course?

62. What are the principal rivers of Virginia? 63. North Carolina?64. South Carolina? 65. Georgia? 66. Alabama? 67. Mississippi? 68.Tennessee? 69. What large river unites with the Mississippi, near St.Louis? 70. What rivers flow south into the Ohio? 71. What river flowsthrough Arkansas territory into the Mississippi?

72. Where is Cape St. Blas? 73. What capes at the mouth of Chesapeakebay? 74. What capes on the coast south from Cape Hatteras? 75. Whatstrait connects lakes Huron and Michigan?

76. Which way is Long Island from New Jersey? 77. Where is Mount DesertIsland? 78. Sullivan’s island? 79. Royale Island? 80. What two islandslie near the mouth of St. Mary’s river?

81. How are the following capitals and chief towns situated, viz.Richmond?

  • 82. Norfolk?
  • 83. Raleigh?
  • 84. Columbus?
  • 85. Cincinnati?
  • 86. Indianapolis?
  • 87. Vincennes?
  • 88. Vandalia?
  • 89. Kaskaskia?
  • 90. Jefferson city?
  • 91. Nashville?
  • 92. St. Louis?
  • 93. Arkopolis, or Little Rock?
  • 94. Frankfort?
  • 95. Lexington?
  • 96. Knoxville?
  • 97. Charleston?
  • 98. Milledgeville?
  • 99. Tuscaloosa?
  • 100. Tallahassee?
  • 101. Natches?
  • 102. New Orleans?
  • 103. Mobile?
  • 104. Washington?[1]

105. Which way is Maine from New Jersey? 106. Georgia from Ohio? 107.Michigan from Massachusetts? 108. Indiana from North Carolina?

109. Which way are Philadelphia, Washington, and Baltimore from Boston?110. Which is furthest?

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Note. Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont,Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, are called The New England States;—New York, Pennsylvania,Maryland, New Jersey, and Delaware, The MiddleStates;—Virginia, North and South Carolinas, Georgia, Alabama,Mississippi, and Louisiana, The SouthernStates;—Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, andMissouri, The Western States.—111. In whatpart of the Union are these sections severally situated?

MAINE.

This map represents only the southern part of the State of Maine;the northern part is covered with extensive forests. For the wholeshape of the State, the pupils must refer to the Map of the UnitedStates; and by comparing the two maps, they will easily comprehend whatportion of the State is here represented. This State has many lakes andrivers, but some of them are not well suited to navigation.

1. How many counties are there in Maine?[2]2. Which of them lie along the shore of the Atlantic ocean? 3. HasKennebeck county any sea-coast? 4. In what part is Oxford county? 5.Which is more eastwardly, Penobscot or Somerset county? 6. What lakelies in Cumberland county? 7. What lakes in Oxford county? 8. In whatpart of Somerset county is Moosehead lake? 9. Where is Sebec lake? 10.What creeks flow into it? 11. In what part of Maine are the Schodiclakes? 12. In what county are they? 13. What river connects Madybemplake and Cobscook bay? 14. Into what county does Penobscot bay extend?15. At the mouth of what river is Passamaquoddy bay? 16. Which is moreeastwardly, Machias or Goldsboro’ bay? 17. In what county is Casco bay?18. On what bay is Nobleboro’? 19. Which way is New Meadow bay fromCasco bay? 20. Where is Frenchman’s bay? 21. English bay? 22. Into whatdoes Mount Desert sound extend? 23. Where is Belfast bay? 24. Whichis further west, Prospect harbour or Hayco*ck harbour? 25. Where isPleasant River bay?

26. What river flows between Maine and New Brunswick? 27. What arethe rivers of Washington county? 28. Which is the largest river inMaine? 29. Into what bay does it flow? 30. What rivers flow into itfrom the west? 31. What from the east? 32. Through what counties doesthe Kennebeck river flow? 33. With what lake, in Somerset county, doesone of its branches communicate? 34. Where is the Androscoggin river?35. Where does it rise? 36. What is its course? 37. What rivers in Yorkcounty? 38. Where is Marshall’s Island?

39. Which are the two largest of the numerous islands near the coastof Maine? 40. Which of them is further east? 41. What islands lie eastfrom Passamaquoddy and Cobscook bays? 42. Which of them is furthestnorth? 43. On which of them is Eastport situated? 44. What island liesat the entrance of Machias bay? 45. Where is Manhegin island? 46. Boonisland? 47. Which is more eastwardly, Little Menan island or Bowbearisland? 48. Which is more northwardly, Seal rock, or Wooden Ball rock?49. What is the longitude from Washington, of Mount Desert rock?

50. Where is Gerrish point? 51. Cape Neddock? 52. Which is moreeastwardly, Cape Small Point or Cape Elizabeth? 53. Which way fromMount Desert rock is Sciodic point? 54. In what part of Maine is Quoddyhead? 55. At the entrance of what bay is Cow point?

56. Is Castine situated on an island or a peninsula? 57. Are theremany peninsulas on the coast of Maine? 58. What town in Cumberlandcounty is situated on an isthmus?

59. On what river is Augusta, the capital of Maine? 60. In whatcounty is it? 61. In what county is York? 62. Portland? 63. Wiscasset?64. Paris? 65. Norridgewock? 66. Bangor? 67. Castine? 68. Machias?

69. On what bay are Portland, North Yarmouth, and Freeport? 70. Nearthe mouth of what rivers is Bath situated?

71. On what river is Prospect? 72. Name some of the towns onAndroscoggin river. 73. On Penobscot river. 74. Which way from Eastportis Lubec?

75. Which way from Augusta is Hallowell? 76.Which way is Waterville? 77. In what county is it? 78. Which way fromKennebunk is Thomaston? 79. What town is near the junction of the eastand west branches of Pleasant river?[Pg 27]

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NEW HAMPSHIRE.... and ... VERMONT.

1. Which of these States is more eastwardly? 2. Which extends furthernorth? 3. Which of them has any sea-coast? 4. What state lies east fromNew Hampshire? 5. What state south?

6. How many counties are there in New Hampshire? 7. What countiesborder upon Massachusetts? 8. What on Maine? 9. What counties lie alongthe Connecticut river? 10. What counties in the interior?

11. What mountains are there in this State? 12. In what part of theState are the Pigwacket mountains? 13. In what county are they?

14. What lake in the northern part of Coos county? 15. What river flowsfrom Lake Umbagog into the state of Maine? 16. Which is the largestlake in New Hampshire? 17. How is it situated? 18. Which way from Squamlake, is Ossipee lake? 19. Which is more eastwardly, Smith’s lake, orEast pond? 20. In what county are Enfield pond, and Newfound lake? 21.How is Sunapee lake situated?

22. What river bounds New Hampshire on the west? 23. What rivers, inCoos county, flow into the Connecticut river? 24. What river flows fromEast pond, into Great bay? 25. What river flows from Lake Ossipee,into Saco river? 26. Where does the Merrimack river rise? 27. What isits course through New Hampshire? 28. What state does it enter afterleaving New Hampshire, and which way flow? 29. Into what does theContocook river flow? 30. The Nashua river? 31. The Mascomey river? 32.The Piscataqua river? 33. At the mouth of what river is Hinsdale?

34. In what county, and on what river, is Concord, the capital ofthe state? 35. In what county is Portsmouth? 36. Is Portsmouth aseaport? 37. In what county is Amherst? 38. Keene? 39. Charlestown? 40.Haverhill? 41. Lancaster? 42. Dover?

43. On what river are Peterboro’ and Jaffrey? 44. Claremont? 45. Whichway is Keene from Concord? 46. From Amherst to Portsmouth? 47. FromWashington to Jefferson?

48. How many counties are in Vermont? 49. Which of them lie south fromthe 44th parallel of latitude? 50. What two are crossed by it? 51.Which is in the interior? 52. What counties are in the north part?

53. What country lies north from Vermont? 54. What state lies south?55. What west?

56. What range of mountains runs through the centre of the state? 57.What is its course?

58. What lakes lie west from Vermont? 59. What north? 60. What lake isin Addison county? 61. What islands are in Lake Champlain? 62. What istheir general name?

63. What river bounds Vermont on the east? 64. What rivers flow intothe Connecticut river, north from the 44th parallel of latitude? 65.What south? 66. What two streams flow from Bennington county into thestate of New York?

67. What river flows into Lake Champlain at Whitehall? 68. In what partof the state is Otter creek? 69. Where does it rise? 70. What is itscourse? 71. Through what counties, and into what lake, does it flow?72. How many branches has White river? 73. What rivers, in the northernpart of the state, flow into Lake Champlain? 74. Into Kilbourn’s lake?

75. In what county, and on what river, is Montpelier, the capitalof the state? 76. In what county is St. Albans? 77. Newfane? 78.Guildhall? 79. Manchester? 80. Danville? 81. Woodstock? 82. Middlebury?83. Rutland? 84. Chelsea?

85. Which way from Windsor to Burlington? 86. From Montpelier toIrasburg? 87. In which corner of the state is Bennington? 88.Brattleboro’?

89. Which is further north, Montpelier or Concord? 90. Portsmouth orBennington? 91. What is the latitude of Middlebury and Haverhill? 92.Which way from Claremont to Rutland? 93. Which way from Plymouth,New-Hampshire to Plymouth, Vermont?

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MASSACHUSETTS, CONNECTICUT,
AND RHODE ISLAND.

1. Which is the largest of these States? 2. Which is smallest?

3. Into how many counties is Massachusetts divided? 4. What countyis in the western part? 5. Through which does the Connecticut riverflow? 6. Which is the largest county? 7. Which counties lie in thenortheastern part? 8. Which in the southeastern part? 9. Boston andChelsea constitute what county?

10. What mountains form the western boundary of Massachusetts? 11.Where are the Hoosack mountains? 12. In what part, and in what town ofMassachusetts is Mount Tom? 13. Mount Holyoke? 14. Wachusett mountain?15. Saddle mountain?

16. Where is Massachusetts bay? 17. Barnstable bay? 18. Buzzard’s bay?19. Vineyard sound? 20. Wellfleet harbor? 21. Holmes’ Hole?

22. What river rises in New Hampshire and runs through the northeasternpart of Massachusetts? 23. What rivers in Massachusetts flow into theConnecticut river from the east? 24. What from the west? 25. In whatpart of Massachusetts is Charles river?

26. What is a canal? 27. What canal runs from Worcester toProvidence? 28. What direct water communication between Merrimack riverand Boston harbor?

29. Where is Cape Ann? 30. Cape Cod? 31. What peninsula lies north fromthe entrance to Boston harbor? 32. What island lies off the town ofIpswich? 33. Which is further east, Nantucket or Martha’s Vineyard? 34.What county do the Elizabeth Islands and Martha’s Vineyard constitute?

35. Which way is Worcester from Boston? 36. Concord from Worcester? 37.Which is more northwardly, Springfield or Northampton? 38. Which wayfrom Taunton to Plymouth?

39. Where are the following celebrated manufacturing towns? viz.Amesbury? 40. Monson? 41. Ware? 42. Lowell? 43. Pawtucket? 44. Waltham?45. Leicester? 46. Through what town does the Ware river flow?

47. What counties lie in the western part of Connecticut? 48. In whatpart is New Haven county? 49. Through which does the Connecticut riverflow? 50. Which lie east from the Connecticut river?

51. What mountains are in Connecticut?

52. Where is Long Island Sound?

53. What river rises in Massachusetts and flows through the westernpart of Connecticut? 54. Through what towns does the Quinebaug riverflow? 55. With what river does it unite, and form the Thames?

56. For what purpose are canals constructed? 57. What canal runsfrom the Connecticut river at Northampton to New Haven? 58. Through whattowns does it run?

59. What are the counties of Rhode Island? 60. What large bay inRhode Island?

61. What rivers in Rhode Island? 62. Through what towns, does thePawtuxet river flow? 63. In what part is Pawtucket river? 64. Where isPawcatuck river?

65. To what county of Rhode Island, does Block Island belong? 66. Onwhat island is Newport? 67. On what island is Jamestown?

68. Where is Point Judith?

69. Which way is Providence from Boston?70. New London from Providence? 71. New Haven from Springfield? 72.Providence from Plymouth? 73. Hartford from Newport? 74. At the head ofwhat bay, are the city and harbor of Boston situated? 75. Providence?76. What large island lies south from Connecticut?[Pg 33]

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NEW YORK.

1. New York is divided into 56 counties; how many of them are on LongIsland? 2. Which lie north from the 44th parallel of latitude? 3.Through which does the Hudson river flow? 4. What counties border onthe river St. Lawrence? 5. Through what counties does the Delaware andHudson canal run?

6. What counties lie west from the meridian of Washington? 7. What aresome of the interior counties? 8. On what island is Richmond county?9. What counties border on Lake Ontario? 10. On Lake Champlain?11. On Lake Erie?

12. Where are the Catskill mountains? 13. Where is Crane’s mountain?

14. What lake lies north from the western part of New York? 15. Whichway from New York is Lake Erie? 16. What lake separates New York fromVermont?

17. Where is Lake George? 18. What small lakes lie in the northerncounties of New York? 19. Which is more northwardly, Oneida or Otsegolake?

20. Which is most westwardly, Cayuga, Seneca, or Salt lake? 21. Whatlake lies between Ontario and Yates counties? 22. North from what partof New York state is Long Island sound?

23. Where is Sacket’s harbor? 24. What bays are on the southern shoreof Lake Ontario? 25. Where is Sag Harbor?

26. What rivers divide New York from Canada? 27. What river runs south,through nearly the whole extent of the eastern part of New York? 28. Bywhat is it connected with Lake Champlain? 29. What city is at its mouth?

30. Through what part does the Genessee river flow? 31. What rivercommunicates with the Hudson, near Troy? 32. What with Lake Ontario,near Brownsville? 33. Where is Tonnewanto creek?

34. What navigable water communication is there between Syracuse andOswego? 35. The Grand canal runs through the State, from west to east;at what place does it commence? 36. At what place does it join theHudson river? 37. In what part of the State is the Delaware and Hudson canal?

38. Where is Montauq point? 39. How is Cape Vincent situated? 40. Whereis Crown point?

41. Where is Galoop island? 42. Which way from New York is Long Island?43. How is Staten Island situated? 44. Where is Fisher’s island? 45. Inwhat river is Grand Isle?

46. On what river is Albany, the capital? 47. Which way is it from NewYork city? 48. What are the principal towns on the Hudson river? 49. Onwhat river is Utica?

50. How is Rochester situated? 51. Where is Lockport? 52. Which isfurther east, Herkimer or Rome? 53. In what county is Ithaca? 54. Onwhat river is West Point? 55. Where is Fort Ticonderoga? 56. How isFort Erie situated? 57. Which way from Fort Niagara to Fort Erie?

58. Which way from Albany is Northampton in Massachusetts? 59. Whichway from Poughkeepsie to New Haven in Connecticut? 60. In what countyis Saratoga Springs? 61. What navigable water communications are therebetween lakes Ontario and Erie? 62. What States lie east from New York?63. What states lie south?

ENVIRONS OF NEW YORK CITY.

What river divides New York city from New Jersey? What riverseparates it from Long Island? Which way from New York is Brooklyn?Which way from it is Jersey city? In what county is New York city?Which way from New York city are Manhattanville and Haerlem? Whereis Coney island? What island lies southwest from New York bay?What islands in New York bay? Where are the Narrows? Where is FortLafayette? On what island are forts Tompkins and Richmond? Whichway from New York bay is Newark bay? What canal joins the Hudsonriver at Jersey city? In what part of New York bay is the Quarantine station?

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PENNSYLVANIA, MARYLAND, NEW JERSEY,
AND DELAWARE.

1. Name some of the counties that lie along the northern boundary ofPennsylvania? 2. The eastern? 3. The western? 4. The southern? 5. Inthe interior?

6. Through what counties does the Monongahela river flow? 7. TheAlleghany river? 8. What county borders on Lake Erie?

9. What range of mountains runs through the State? 10. What othermountains are in the State?

11. What lake borders on the northwestern corner of Pennsylvania?

12. What river forms the eastern boundary? 13. What river rises in NewYork, and flows through Pennsylvania into Chesapeake bay? 14. The cityPhiladelphia is situated between two rivers, and extends from one tothe other; what are those rivers called?

15. What rivers unite at Pittsburg and form the Ohio? 16. Through whatpart does the Juniata river flow?

17. Where is the Lehigh river, the vicinity of which abounds with coal?18. The Schuylkill river is also celebrated for the coal mines in itsneighborhood; where does it rise? 19. What is its course? 20. Into whatdoes it flow?

21. On what river is Harrisburg, the capital of the State? 22. In whatcounty is Pittsburg? 23. Which is more northwardly, Sunbury or Easton?

24. What town lies on Lake Erie? 25. In what county is Carbondale?26. Which is more westwardly, Lancaster or Columbia? 27. Which way isHarrisburg from Philadelphia? 28. From Carlisle to Bethany?

29. What counties in Maryland, are west from Chesapeake bay?30. What east?

31. What river divides Maryland from Virginia? 32. Into what does thePetapsco river flow? 33. Between what counties does the Pawtuxent river flow?

34. How is Annapolis, the capital, situated? 35. What is its latitude?36. On what river is Baltimore? 37. At the mouth of what river is Havrede Grace?

38. How far south does Maryland extend? 39. What State is southfrom it? 40. Which is more northwardly, Annapolis or Baltimore? 41.Cambridge or Chestertown?

42. Into how many counties is New Jersey divided? 43. Which of them aresouth from the 40th parallel of latitude? 44. In what part of the Stateis Monmouth county? 45. Name some of the northern counties.

46. Which is more northwardly, Great or Little Egg harbor? 47. Where isBarnegat bay? 48. Where is Sandy Hook? 49. Cape May?

50. On what river is Trenton, the capital? 51. Which way from Trentonto Bordentown? 52. What bay divides New Jersey from Delaware?

53. What are the counties of Delaware? 54. Which is furthest north? 55.Which furthest south?

56. In what county is Dover, the capital, situated? 57. At the mouth ofwhat river is New Castle? 58. Where is Georgetown? 59. Where is Cape Henlopen?

60. Which way from Harrisburg to Trenton? 61. From Trenton to Dover?62. From Annapolis to Pittsburg?

63. What States lie east from Pennsylvania? 64. What State north fromNew Jersey? 65. How can a person sail from Trenton to Baltimore, andnot pass Capes May and Henlopen?

66. Which is largest, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, or Maryland?67. Which is smallest? 68. Which of them border on the Atlantic ocean?

69. What cities and towns are in the District of Columbia? 70. Whatriver runs through it? 71. On which side of the river is Alexandria?72. What is the latitude of Washington? 73. Of what is Washington the capital?

ENVIRONS OF PHILADELPHIA.

Between what rivers is Philadelphia situated?In what county is Philadelphia? What island is in Delaware river,opposite the city? What county lies north from Philadelphia county?Which way is Germantown from Philadelphia city? What separates Camdenfrom Philadelphia? Where is Petty’s island?[Pg 39]

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WESTERN STATES.

1. Name the Western States. 2. Which lie north from the Ohio river?3. Which south? 4. Which west from Mississippi river? 5. Which doesMississippi river bound on the west? 6. What two large rivers runthrough Kentucky and Tennessee?

7. The Territory which lies north and west from Missouri stateextends westward, to the Oregon Territory; what is it called? 8. WhatTerritory lies south from Missouri state? 9. What States south fromTennessee?—[For answer to this question refer to the United States.]10. What State east? 11. What State lies east from Kentucky? 12. WhatState east from Ohio? 13. What Territory lies north from Ohio andIndiana? 14. What north from Illinois?

15. Of what State is Columbus the capital? 16. Is Ohio a mountainousstate? 17. What lake lies north? 18. What river on the south andeast? 19. On what river is Zanesville? 20. What joins Ohio river atPortsmouth? 21. What river flows through the northwestern corner of theState? 22. On what river is Athens?

23. What river flows into Lake Erie at Sandusky? 24. What joins theOhio at the southwest corner of the State? 25. What is the course ofthe Miami river? 26. Of Ohio river?

27. What water communication is there between Cincinnati and Dayton?28. What is the general course of the Ohio canal? 29. What towns in thenorthern part of the State are near the course of the canal? 30. Whatin the southern part? 31. To what town does a branch of the Ohio canalrun? 32. At what place does it communicate with Lake Erie?

33. What towns on Ohio river? 34. On what river is Columbus, andin what part of the State is it? 35. Which way is Cincinnati fromColumbus? 36. Which is most westerly, Marietta, Cincinnati, orGallipolis? 37. Where is Steubenville? 38. On what river, and in whatpart of the State, is Fort Defiance? 39. Which way is Jackson fromJefferson?

40. What State does Lake Michigan bound (in part) on the north? 41.Where is Fort Wayne? 42. What river forms part of the western boundaryof Indiana? 43. Which of the branches of the Illinois river has itssource in Indiana? 44. What are the branches of the Wabash? 45. How isIndianapolis, the capital situated? 46. What towns on the Ohio river?47. Which way is Vincennes from Indianapolis? 48. Connersville fromVincennes? 49. Which way from Crawfordville is Jacksonboro’?

50. What lake separates Illinois from Michigan? 51. What three riversform the western, southern, and (in part) the eastern, boundaries ofIllinois? 52. Which is the largest river in Illinois? 53. What river inthe northwestern part of the State?

54. On what river is Vandalia, the capital? 55. Where is Kaskaskia?56. Which way is Edwardsville from Vandalia? 57. How is Shawneetownsituated? 58. What town is on Lake Michigan? 59. In what part of theState is Peoria? 60. Which way is McLeansboro’ from Jacksonville?

61. What mountains are between Kentucky and Virginia? 62. What riverrises in the eastern part of this State, and after passing throughTennessee, flows north, into the Ohio? 63. Where is Licking river?

64. On what river is Frankfort, the capital? 65. Which way fromFrankfort to Maysville? 66. Which is more westerly, Henderson orLouisville? 67. What town on Mississippi river? 68. Which is morenorthwardly, Madisonville or Barbourville?

69. What mountains are between Tennessee and North Carolina? 70. Whatrange runs through the State? 71. What lake is in this State? 72. Howis it connected with Mississippi river? 73. Describe the course of theTennessee river. 74. What are the branches of the Tennessee river, andwhere do they rise?

75. On what river is Nashville, the capital? 76. Which way from itis Murfreesboro’? 77. In what part is Memphis? 78. Which is morenorthwardly, Winchester or Knoxville? 79. Which is furthest north,Washington, Munroe, or Jackson?

80. Of what state is Jefferson city the capital? 81. What mountains arein that State? 82. What large river flows through the state? 83. Doesit flow west or east? 84. What river joins the Missouri at 15° long.west from Washington? 85. What river in Missouri is of the same name asone in New Hampshire and Massachusetts?

86. What are the principal towns on Mississippi river? 87. Whichis more northwardly, St. Louis or St. Charles? 88. Which is mostwestwardly, Franklin, Jefferson, or Jackson?

89. Of what is Detroit the capital? 90. What lakes appear on this mapto border upon Michigan Territory? 91. What are some of the rivers?Note. For the whole shape of Michigan and Northwest Territories, thelearner must refer to the map of the United States, as neither of themis fully exhibited on this map.

92. What is the latitude and longitude of Zanesville? 93. Of Vandalia?94. How can a person travel by water from Cleveland to Dayton? 95.Which is further north, Columbus or Indianapolis? 96. Frankfort orJefferson city? 97. Which is further east, Nashville or Vincennes? 98.Which way from the capital of Ohio must you travel in order to passin a straight line through the capitals of two other of the westernStates? 99. What Territory is north from Illinois? 100. Between whatparallels of latitude do the Western States lie?

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UNITED STATES.

The United States of North America are classed into four groups ofStates, each group having a distinguishing name. First, New England;second, the Middle States; third, the Western; fourth, the SouthernStates. This division arises from local distinctions, which existin the character and pursuits of the inhabitants, or is founded onphysical causes.

NEW ENGLAND.

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (30)

New England includes the six States lying east from Hudson riverand Lake Champlain. This general name was given to this part of thecountry by the first settlers, or, as they are generally called, ‘thepilgrim fathers,’ who left England, their native country, and landed atPlymouth, in December, 1620, in order that they might enjoy religiousfreedom. This section of the United States is distinguished for theindustry of its inhabitants, and for being the most populous part ofthe Union. Great attention is paid to agriculture and commerce.

The features of New England are mountainous; and the soil is various,producing in abundance, grass, grain, and a variety of fruits. Itsclimate is salubrious.

There is probably no place in the world where education is so widelyspread through all classes of the people; there being schools in eachtown, supported at public expense.

MAINE.

Is an uneven and mountainous State. Its soil is peculiarly adaptedto the growth of timber, and for pasturage of cattle. The climate ishealthy, although the cold is severe during the winter months. ThisState has an extensive sea-coast, indented with many good harbors, andcommerce is actively pursued by those who reside near the ocean. Theexports are timber and fish. Portland is the largest city, and hasheretofore been the capital; but Augusta has recently been selected forthe metropolis of the State.

NEW HAMPSHIRE.

The climate of this State is similar to that of Maine. The land ismountainous and fertile. Agriculture is the chief occupation of theinhabitants. There is but little facility for commerce, as the Statehas only sixteen miles of sea-coast. The harbor at Portsmouth is one ofthe best on the continent, and contains one of the United States’ navalstations. The capital of this State is Concord, which is a place ofconsiderable trade, having a communication with Boston harbor by meansof Middlesex canal.

VERMONT.

Derives its name from the range of the Green Mountains which runsthrough the State. These mountains give rise to many rivers whichcontribute to the fertility of the soil. The State being entirelyinland, the attention of the inhabitants is directed to agriculture andmanufactures. Mines of iron, copper, and lead, and quarries of marble,are found in this State. Montpelier, the capital, is a flourishing town.[Pg 45]

MASSACHUSETTS.

Is the oldest State in New England, and is distinguished as havingbeen the first mover in the struggle for American Independence. It isthe first, except New York, in commerce, wealth, and manufactures. Itis the second commercial State in the Union. The state of society isenlightened, and the advantages of education are universally enjoyed.

The land is uneven and hilly, and in the western part, mountainous. Thesoil is fertile, except in the southeastern part, where it is sandy.

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (31)

CITY HALL, BOSTON.

Boston is the capital, and being the largest city in New England,may properly be considered the metropolis of this whole section ofcountry. It is built upon a peninsula at the head of Massachusetts bay,and has a most excellent harbor, capable of accommodating more thanfive hundred vessels, while the entrance is so narrow that only twoships can sail in, abreast. The wharfs are constructed with a degreeof expense and neatness far exceeding those of any other city in theUnited States. The harbor is defended by forts, and contains one ofthe United States’ naval stations. Boston has communication with thesurrounding country by means of seven bridges, all built of wood, withthe exception of the Western Avenue, which is built of stone and earth.This city is noted for its literature, and for its many handsome publicand private buildings, among which may be named the State House, QuincyMarket, Tremont House, Masonic Temple, &c. The cut above gives a viewof the City Hall, which contains the Rooms of the Mayor, Aldermen,and Council, Post Office, and City Treasurer and Clerk’s Offices.This building was formerly the State House. In this venerated edificethe first legislative acts on the American revolution were debatedand acted upon. This continued to be the capitol until the year 1800,when the present State House was built. This city is also celebratedas containing Faneuil Hall, ‘the cradle of liberty,’ where the firstpopular assemblies were held, to discuss the question of Independence.

Salem, the next town in size, is considered the wealthiest town in theUnited States.

Charlestown, is noted in the annals of the Revolution, as being theplace where the battle of Bunker Hill was fought.

CONNECTICUT.

Possesses a mild climate and fertile soil which is under a high stateof cultivation. Manufactures of cotton, woollen, linen, iron, wood, andtin, are carried on with great activity and ingenuity in this State.General habits of sobriety and industry are the characteristics of theinhabitants, who are generally well educated, much attention being paidto schools. Connecticut and Massachusetts have furnished more emigrantsto the western states than any other section of the Republic.

The General Assembly of statesmen, meets alternately at New Havenand Hartford, on which account both may be considered capitals. YaleCollege at New Haven, is one of the most flourishing seminaries in theUnion.

RHODE ISLAND.

Is the smallest State in the Republic; its soil is moderately fertile,and the climate salubrious and healthy. It has a greater amount ofmanufactures in proportion to its population than any other State. Itscommerce is considerable. This State takes its name from an island in[Pg 46]Narraganset bay. On this island is situated Newport, which has one ofthe best harbors in the United States.

Rhode Island was founded by Roger Williams, a celebrated advocate forreligious liberty. This State has no written constitution, being stillgoverned under the charter of the English king, Charles II, in virtueof which, the people annually elect a Governor, Senate, and House ofRepresentatives. These constitute the General Assembly, which meetsfour times a year. Providence being the largest city may be consideredthe capital, although the Assembly meets alternately at Providence,South Kingston, East Greenwich, and Bristol. Brown University is in Providence.

MIDDLE STATES.

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (32)

THE PATTERSON VIADUCT.

The Middle States are so called from their relative situation. Thedistinguishing characteristic of this section of country is theextensive system of internal improvement by means of canals andrailroads, by which the prosperity of those States is much promoted.Railroads are laid down on the most level routes between the places tobe connected. They are formed by rails of iron laid on a foundation ofstone or wood. The wheels of the carriages are made to run upon theserails, which being smooth offer little resistance, and make it easyfor a small force to move an immense weight. All the hills which occurin the route of these roads are levelled and the valleys filled up.Railroads pass over rivers by means of bridges, or, as they are moregenerally called in these States, viaducts. The Baltimore and Ohiorailroad passes over a river, about seven miles from the city, by means of oneof these, called the Patterson viaduct, a view of which is given in the cut.[Pg 47]

The climate of the Middle States embraces almost all the varieties thatare found on the face of the earth; and, with the exception of thenorthern part of the State of New York, the soil is more fertile thanthat of New England. Wheat is produced in great abundance, and formsthe chief object of agriculture.

NEW YORK.

Ranks first in the United States for commerce, wealth, and population,and is one of the most extensive in point of territory. The land isuneven, and in some parts mountainous. The soil is moderately fertile,and well adapted to agriculture and grazing.

A prominent feature of this State is the great number of lakes inits interior, which, being connected together by rivers, facilitatethe transportation of produce from place to place. These naturaladvantages, together with large rivers and grand canals, have raisedNew York to the elevated rank she now holds, and made the city of NewYork the first emporium of commerce in the Union.

The Falls of Niagara, between Lakes Erie and Ontario, are partly inthis State. This is the largest cataract in the world, and is a placeof great interest to the thousands of its visiters. The fall here isone hundred and fifty feet.

Long Island is a part of this State. It is one hundred and sixty mileslong, and from two to fifteen broad, and is well cultivated. Theprincipal town on this island is Brooklyn, where there is one of theUnited States naval stations.

Albany is the capital of New York. It isa flourishing city on the Hudson river, situated at the point whereit is joined by the Western and Champlain canals, which circ*mstancescontribute to make it a place of considerable trade. Its inhabitantsare principally descendants from the Dutch, who first settled the state.

The city New York is situated onManhattan island, at the mouth of the Hudson river; and from itscommodious bay and other natural advantages for commerce, seemsdestined to rival all the commercial cities in the world. This citycontains many elegant buildings, and beautiful parks. Its populationembraces some of almost every nation on the earth, who congregate herein pursuit of wealth. New York city extends over three miles alongits harbor, thus affording ample accommodation to almost innumerable vessels.

Ballston and Saratoga springs, are the most celebrated mineral springsin the United States, and are much visited, during the summer months,on account of the medicinal qualities of the waters.

NEW JERSEY.

The soil of New Jersey is not generally so fertile as that of thestates which have been named, being sandy along the sea-coast, andhilly in the interior. Although this state has an extensive sea-coastyet, as there are few very commodious harbors, to vie with that ofNew York on the one side and of Philadelphia on the other, it has butlittle commerce:—These cities import almost all the foreign articlesand dispose of most of the manufactures and produce of this state.

The farmers raise many cattle, and much fruit, particularly apples,from which immense quantities of cider are annually made:—for thisarticle this state is particularly celebrated.

Iron ore is abundant—copper, lead, coal, and freestone are found inconsiderable quantities. Manufactures of iron, cotton, and leather, arecarried on to a considerable amount.

Trenton is the capital of the state. It is situated on the Delawareriver, and is on the great route of travel between New York andPhiladelphia. It is celebrated as the scene of one of the mostbrilliant battles fought by the Americans during the revolution.Princeton is also noted for a battle.

Newark contains more inhabitants than any other town in the state, itspopulation being about 11,000.

PENNSYLVANIA.

William Penn, a benevolent English gentleman, brought out with him, inthe year 1681, a great number of Quakers, and first settled this state,under a grant from King Charles II. After his name the State is called,[Pg 48]Pennsylvania. This State exhibits a great variety of soil and climate.The soil is suited to the growth of grain, and husbandry is said to bebetter understood in Pennsylvania than in any other State. Hemp andpeaches are cultivated. Wine is made in small quantities, and commerceflourishes to a great extent.

This State abounds in coal, which forms an article of commerce withmost of the cities of the United States. It is obtained in immensequantities in the neighborhood of Pittsburg, and from the Schuylkilland Lehigh mines.

Pennsylvania has engaged more extensively in internal improvements thanany other State.

Harrisburg, the capital, is pleasantly situated on the SusquehannaRiver, and contains an elegant State House.

Philadelphia is the most regularly laid out and well built city in theUnion. The streets generally intersect each other at right angles, andthe principal ones are 100 feet wide. The inhabitants are extensivelyengaged in manufactures. The commerce of this place is large, andaccording to the amount of its exports is the third commercial city inthe Republic.

In this city are many literary, scientific, and benevolentinstitutions, and numerous elegant public buildings, among which arethe Bank of the United States, the Almshouse, Mint of the UnitedStates, and many elegant churches. The population of the city is80,458; and of the suburbs, 87,353; total, 167,811.

DELAWARE.

With the exception of Rhode Island, this state is the smallest in theUnion; it is also the least populous state. Its soil is moderatelyfertile, and produces a great variety of grasses, and an abundance ofwheat. Flour is the principal article of manufacture and export. Aconsiderable quantity of lumber is also exported.

The Chesapeake and Delaware canal intersects this state, and forms aneasy and expeditious communication between Philadelphia and Baltimore.

Dover is the capital. It contains a handsome state house.

MARYLAND.

This is the most irregularly shaped of all the American states. Herethe system of husbandry peculiar to the Southern States generallycommences, it being the first in our progress southward where tobaccois produced. Wheat, hemp, and flax, are considerably cultivated.

The first settlers of this State were natives of Sweden, and many oftheir posterity may still be found who are like their forefathers,healthy, cheerful, industrious, and hospitable.

This State ranks high in a commercial view. Its commercial city isBaltimore, where there is an excellent harbor, capable of containinga great number of vessels. Its inhabitants are celebrated forhospitality, a spirit of enterprise, and polished manners. It containsmany elegant public structures, viz. the Washington and BattleMonuments, the Exchange, the Museum, and Hospital. Much attention ispaid to education. Population 80,625.

Annapolis is the capital. It is situated 28 miles southeast fromBaltimore, and is a flourishing place, containing a handsome statehouse in its centre, towards which the streets run.

The principal manufacture of this State is flour, which is made in suchquantities as to form the chief article of export. Tobacco, lumber,iron, glass, and whiskey, are also exported.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

Between Maryland and Virginia, lies the Federal District of Columbia,comprising a square of ten miles. This district which was given bythese States to the United States, lies on both sides of the riverPotomack, 120 miles from its mouth, and is under the immediatejurisdiction of the National Congress, which assembles annually atWashington, for the purpose of legislation. Washington is situated nearthe centre of the district, and is laid out in such manner, that theprincipal buildings, as the Capitol, President’s house, &c. command afull view of the city, and at the same time can be seen from every partof it. Georgetown and Alexandria are also within the district.

[Pg 49]

WESTERN STATES.

The Western States have all sprung into existence within the period ofthe last fifteen years, and their growth has been unparalleled, both inthe increase of population and wealth.

Probably no district of country on earth, possesses so great aproportion of soil capable of yielding the necessaries and luxuriesof life, in so great abundance. The seasons are regularly dividedinto spring, summer, autumn, and winter, and the climate is generallyhealthful. Furs, minerals, cotton, indigo, tobacco, hemp, wheat, andevery description of grain and fruit common in the New England States,flourish here.

Prairies are common in this section of the country, on which immenseherds of buffaloes are often seen grazing.

The remote situation of these states from the ocean, has retarded theirgrowth as a commercial country; but the introduction of steam-boats,canals, and railways, is fast overcoming the difficulty, and some ofthe western towns are already very large, and are rapidly increasing.

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (33)

CINCINNATI.

OHIO.

Takes its name, and derives its greatest facilities for commerce, fromthe noble Ohio river. This State was admitted to the Union in theyear 1802, since which time its growth has been rapid; in 1820 itspopulation was 581,434; and increased in ten years to 937,679.

Although there are no mountains in this State, yet it is diversifiedwith hills, valleys, and plains, and watered by many fine rivers,navigable for boats. The soil and climate are excellent, and the statepresents great facilities for agriculture. The land in its naturalstate is thickly covered with forests, and the trees attain an immensesize.

The population is composed of emigrants from the other states, thegreater proportion of which are from New England. The inhabitants arenoted for their industrious habits, and enterprising spirit.

Cincinnati (a view of which is given above,) is the largest town in theState, and with propriety may be considered the commercial capital of[Pg 50]the Western States. It is rapidly increasing in refinement, business,and population. The number of inhabitants, as given in the returns tocongress in the year 1830, is stated at 24,831; but another censustaken a few months later in the same year states that it is 26,515.Being advantageously situated on the Ohio river, it seems destined tobecome a great city, and may in progress of time rival the older citiesof the Middle and the Eastern States.

Columbus, the capital, is a flourishing place.

Much attention is paid in this State to education. There are manycolleges and academies, and schools are general throughout the State.Internal improvements are gaining the attention of the people.

Mounds of earth are found in many places, the origin of which cannot beascertained. These mounds appear to be forts, and are supposed to havebeen built by people who lived in this country before the present raceof Indians.

INDIANA.

This state is nearly similar to Ohio in its climate, soil, productions,and inhabitants. The northern part of the State is level, the southernpart broken and hilly, and there is much timber land.

The largest town in the State is Vincennes. At this place most of thetrade of the State centres.

ILLINOIS.

The soil of this State is exceedingly rich, and is divided into forestand prairie lands; and when under cultivation produces in the greatestabundance, the necessaries and luxuries of life. Grapes are common tothe country, and are abundant. Great quantities of wine might be easilymanufactured. Foreign vines have been cultivated with success. Maize,wheat, oats, barley, buckwheat, potatoes, rye, tobacco, cotton, hemp,and flax, peaches, plums, and garden vegetables, and indeed almost allthe productions of the Eastern and Middle States, can be cultivated toadvantage here.

The United States salt works on the Saline river produce annually200,000 bushels of salt. Coal, iron ore, copper, and lead are found here.

MISSOURI.

Takes its name from the river which runs through the State. It containsless woodland than Illinois, but its soil and climate are similar.Numerous mines of lead are now worked, which yield immense quantities.Iron ore is found in great abundance, and it is probable that enough ofthese two minerals may be obtained from this State to supply the wholeUnited States.

Jefferson city, the capital, is at present a small place, but isincreasing. St. Louis is the largest town, and is the depot for thetrade of the northwestern territories.

KENTUCKY.

Is one of the most healthful and beautiful States in the Union. Thegreater proportion of its land is arable and productive. The failure ofwater of most of the rivers of this State during the summer months isa great obstacle to its prosperity. The Ohio and Mississippi rivers,however, form an easy communication with the sea. The productionsare wheat, tobacco, maize, rye, and to a small extent, cotton. Theinhabitants consist of the descendants of emigrants from the otherStates, and many from Europe. They are brave, frank, and hospitable.

Lexington is the largest town in the State, and has a population of6,104. Frankfort, the capital, is situated on the Kentucky river, about60 miles from its mouth, and is a flourishing place.

TENNESSEE.

The description of Kentucky may be also applied to this State,except that it is intersected by two noble rivers, the Tennessee andCumberland, which are rarely frozen, and afford a great extent of boatnavigation. Vegetation commences about six weeks earlier in this Statethan in New Hampshire, and continues about six weeks longer.

Nashville, the capital, is the largest town in the State. In this placeis Cumberland College.

[Pg 51]

SOUTHERN STATES.

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (34)

Mount Vernon. Seat of General Washington.

That part of the Southern States near the Atlantic ocean and the gulfof Mexico is low and sandy. The greater portion of this section ofthe country is barren, except the parts near the rivers, which areexceedingly fertile. After proceeding towards the interior about 75 or100 miles, the country becomes mountainous and productive.

Tobacco, cotton, rice and sugar are the staple productions. The ownersof the lands where these articles are cultivated are called planters,and the labor of the plantations is performed by slaves.

The climate of this part of the United States is various. In Virginiaand Maryland the heat of summer is not extreme, and a small quantity ofsnow only, falls during the winter. In the most southwardly States snowis exceedingly rare in winter, and the heat is intense in the summermonths.

The commerce and manufactures of these States are very limited, and toagriculture, almost the whole attention of the inhabitants is directed.Their tobacco, cotton, and all their exports are sent out in shipsowned in the Northern States. The reason for this probably is, that thecultivation of the staple productions is more profitable than commerce.

The inhabitants of the Southern States, residing on large plantations,are so much separated from one another, that it is impossible to carryinto effect a system of education so extensive as that of the NorthernStates, and of course the people generally, are not so well informed.The higher classes are, however, well educated.

VIRGINIA.

Is the oldest State in the Union, having been first settled in the year1607, and is celebrated as being the birth-place of General GeorgeWashington, the brightest model of a great and good man and patriot, ofwhich the world can boast.

The cut on this page presents a view of his residence, situated on thePotomack river, nine miles below Alexandria, where he spent his time,when not actively engaged in the service of his country.

This State includes a surface larger than that of England. The soilof the Eastern coast is sandy and the climate unhealthy; while theinterior parts are fertile and healthy, and inhabited by a race of men,very vigorous and exceedingly tall. The Virginians are hospitable, andare noted for cherishing their talented statesmen.

In amount of commerce Virginia, though first in size, ranks only as theeighth State. Wheat, corn, and tobacco are the most important articlesof export.

Richmond, the capital, is situated at the falls on St. James river. Itis a handsome city.

Norfolk, on Elizabeth river, is the chief commercial town of the State.

NORTH CAROLINA.

Closely resembles Virginia in climate, soil and character of itsinhabitants. The Carolinians in the lower country, are mostly planters,and in the upper country, farmers. The coast of North Carolina aboundsin sand banks and islands, which render navigation dangerous, and itscommerce is conducted at the seaports of the neighboring States.

The towns of this State are small, Newbern, with a population of 4000,being the largest.[Pg 52]

SOUTH CAROLINA.

Exhibits the characteristics peculiar to the Southern States, in agreater degree than any other. The planters of this State are the mostwealthy of their class, and require a greater number of slaves tocultivate their fertile and extensive plantations. In this State onlydoes the number of slaves exceed the white population. According to thelast census, more than one half of the inhabitants are slaves.

Cotton is the great staple of this state. It is of three kinds.Sea Island cotton, which grows on the islands and in the lowcountry;—Upland cotton, which is cultivated in the mountainousinterior country;—and the Nankin cotton, which retains its peculiarcolor as long as it can be worn. Of these the Sea Island is the mostesteemed. Rice is extensively cultivated on the shores of the riversand bays. Limes, oranges, lemons, figs, &c. are produced.

The commerce of South Carolina exceeds that of all the other SouthernStates except Louisiana, the leading articles of export being cottonand rice, to which may be added pitch, tar, timber, turpentine, indigoand tobacco.

GEORGIA, MISSISSIPPI, ALABAMA,
AND LOUISIANA.

These States nearly resemble each other, and have the same productionswith the other Southern States; and in addition, the sugar cane isextensively cultivated. Louisiana is the most commercial of theSouthern States, having at New Orleans an excellent harbor, and manyother natural advantages.

New Orleans is the commercial capital of that richest country in theworld, through which the Mississippi and its tributaries flow. Thiscity is unhealthy during the warm season, but enjoys a most excellentsituation for commerce and trade. The introduction of steam boatshas contributed greatly to the growth of New Orleans, by affordingan expeditious mode of communicating with its back country. Itsinhabitants are a mixed race of French, Americans, Spaniards, and Germans.

TERRITORIES.

The Territory of Florida has a great similarity to the SouthernStates generally. It is well stocked with timber, and furnishes a greatquantity for ship building. Its climate and soil are well adapted tothe growth of sugar cane, coffee, cotton and rice.

Arkansas Territory is in the eastern part flat and swampy—in thewestern uneven—and in the middle pleasant and healthful.

The North West Territory has been but little explored; it is chieflyin possession of the Indians. Green Bay and Prairie du Chien are thechief settlements. Lead mines are found here.

Michigan Territory. The climate is severe, and the winter lasts fromthe middle of November to March. The face of the country is level,and the productions are wheat, maize, oats, barley and potatoes. TheSouthern part only is, at present, settled. Detroit the capital has alarge fur trade.

Missouri Territory is an immense tract of land, stretching from theStates and Territories bordering on the western side of the Mississippiriver to the Rocky Mountains; almost the whole of it is in possessionof the Indians, the United States having only two military posts, oneat Council Bluffs, and one on St. Peter’s River. This tract is valuableto Americans on account of the numerous wild animals found, from whichfurs are obtained.

Oregon Territory extends from the RockyMountains to the Pacific Ocean. This great region is also chiefly inpossession of the Indians, although there is an American settlement onthe Columbia river, called Astoria. Exertions are now making to inducepeople to emigrate from the States to this part of our country, whichis said to be a healthy and fertile region, and to offer superioradvantages for commerce and manufactures.[Pg 53]

[Click anywhere on chart for high resolution image.]

NOTE. Besides the above-mentioned Canals, thereare others in progress, or on the point of commencement, in the UnitedStates, amounting, probably, to 1500 miles.

RAIL-ROADS.

Miles.
Baltimore and Ohio,340
Charleston and Hamburg, S. C.135
Columbia and Philadelphia, Pa.81½
Portsmouth and Roanoke, Va. & N. C.80
Baltimore & Susquehannah, Md.76
Cattskill and Canajoharie, N. Y.70
Lexington and Ohio river, Ky.66
Camden and Amboy, N. J.61
Petersburg and Roanoke, Va.60
Harrisburg & Chambersburg, Pa.48
Boston and Worcester, Mass.43½
Boston and Providence, Mass.43
Alleghany Portage, Pa.37
Baltimore and Washington,33
Ithaca and Oswego, N. Y.29
Philadelphia and Trenton, Pa. & N. J.26¾
Detroit and Pontiac, Mich. Ter.25
Boston and Lowell, Mass.25
Little Schuylkill, Pa.23
Saratoga and Schenectady, N. Y.20
Philadelphia & Norristown, Pa.19
Newcastle and Frenchtown, Del. & Md.16½
Albany and Schenectady, N. Y.16
Lakens Valley, Pa.16
Lackawaxen, Pa.16
Patterson and Hudson, N. J.16
Manchester, Va.13
Schuylkill, Pa.13
Altamaha and Brunswick, Geo.12
Schuylkill Valley, Pa.10
 do.  do. Laterals,13
West Branch, Pa.15
 do.  do. Laterals,5
Mount Carbon, Pa.9
 do.  do. Laterals,4
Mauch Chunk, Pa.9
 do.  do. Laterals,
Pinegrove,5
Louisiana,4
Lake Ponchartrain, La.
Mile Creek, Pa.4
 do.  do. Laterals,3
Quincy, Mass.4
Providence and Stonington, R. I. & Ct.47
Boston and Salem, Mass.14

NOTE. Many others are in progress in
various Sections of the United States.

[Pg 54]

STATISTICAL AND POLITICAL CHART.

The following Chart, combining much generalinformation, is intended more for reference than for study; yet theinstructer will propose such questions as may be thought useful;especially in relation to the state in which the learner may reside.

STATES.Total
Population
Number
of
Slaves.
Seats of
Government,
with Population.
[3] Electors of
President and
Vice Pres. of the
United States, chosen
in state by
Maine,399,462noneAugusta,3,980Districts
New Hampshire,269,533noneConcord,3,727Gen. Ticket
Vermont,280,679noneMontpelier,1,193Do.
Massachusetts,610,014noneBoston,61,392Do.
Connecticut,297,71123New Haven,10,180Do.
Hartford,7,076
Rhode Island,97,21014Providence,16,832Do.
Newport,8,010
S. Kingston,3,663
E. Greenwich,1,591
Bristol,3,054
New York,1,913,50846Albany,24,238Do.
New Jersey,320,7792,446Trenton,3,925Do.
Pennsylvania,1,347,672386Harrisburg,4,311Do.
Delaware,76,7393,305Dover,*1,200Legislature
Maryland,446,913102,878Annapolis,2,623Districts.
Ohio,937,679noneColumbus,2,437Gen. Ticket
Indiana,341,582noneIndianopolis,*1,200Do.
Illinois,157,575746Vandalia,*600Do.
Missouri,140,07424,990Jefferson,*500Do.
Kentucky,688,844165,350Frankfort,1,680Do.
Tennessee,684,822142,382Nashville,5,566Legislature
Virginia,1,211,272469,724Richmond,16,060Gen. Ticket
North Carolina,738,470246,462Raleigh,1,700Do.
South Carolina,581,458315,665Columbia,3,310Legislature
Georgia,516,567217,470Milledgeville,1,599Gen. Ticket
Alabama,308,997117,294Tuscaloosa,1,600Do.
Mississippi,136,80665,659Jackson,*1,000Do.
Louisiana,215,575109,631New Orleans,46,310Legislature
Dis. of Columbia,39,8586,050Washington,18,827
Florida Territ’y,[4]34,72315,510Tallahassee,*1,000
Michigan do.31,26027Detroit,2,222
Arkansas do.30,3834,578Little Rock,*600
Total,12,856,1652,010,436

The population is given according to the censusof 1830, except those towns marked *, which were not particularized inthe returns. The population of these is therefore taken from other lateauthorities.

STATES.Governors.[5]
Senators.
[6]
Representatives.
Chosen
by the
Years.Salary.No.Years.No.Years.
Maine,People11,5002011531
New Hampshire,do.11,2001212291
Vermont,do.17502301
Massachusetts,do.13,666 ⅔4014811
Connecticut,do.11,1002112081
Rhode Island,do.140010172½
New York,do.24,0003241281
New Jersey,Legis.12,000141501
Pennsylvania,People34,0003341001
Delaware,do.31,333 ⅓93211
Maryland,Legis.13,500155801
Ohio,People21,200362721
Indiana,do.31,000233631
Illinois,do.41,00042
Missouri,do.41,500184492
Kentucky,do.42,0003841001
Tennessee,do.22,000202602
Virginia,Legis.33,333 ⅓3241341
North Carolina,do.12,0006411341
South Carolina,do.23,9004541242
Georgia,People23,0007811421
Alabama,do.22,000223721
Mississippi,do.22,500113361
Louisiana,do.47,500174502
STATES.Time of holding Elections
of State Officers.
Time of Meeting of the
State Legislatures.
Maine,2d Monday in Sept.1st Wednesday in January.
New Hampshire,2d Tues. in March.1st Wednesday in June.
Vermont,1st Tues. in Sept.2d Thursday in October.
Massachusetts,2d Mond. in Nov.1st Wednesday in January.
Connecticut,1st Mond. in April.1st Wed. May, alternately
at Hart. and New Haven.
Rhode Island,Governor and1st Wed. May; and in June.
Senators in April.
Representatives inLast Wed. Oct. and in Jan.
April and Aug.
New York,October or Nov.1st Tuesday in January.
New Jersey,2d Tues. in Oct.4th Tuesday in October.
Pennsylvania,2d Tues. in Oct.1st Tuesday in December.
Delaware,1st Tues. in Oct.1st Tues. in Oct.
Maryland,1st Monday in Oct.Last Monday in December.
Ohio,2d Tuesday in Oct.1st Monday in December.
Indiana,1st Mond. in Aug.1st Monday in December.
Illinois,1st Mond. in Aug.1st Mon. Dec. every 2d yr.
Missouri,1st Mond. in Aug.1st Mon. Nov. every 2d yr.
Kentucky,1st Mond. in Aug.1st Monday in November.
Tennessee,1st Thurs. in Aug.3d Mon. Sept. every 2d yr.
Virginia,In month of April.1st Monday in December.
North Carolina,Generally in Aug.2d Monday in November.
South Carolina,2d Mond. in Oct.4th Monday in November.
Georgia,1st Mond. in Oct.1st Monday in November.
Alabama,1st Mond. in Aug.4th Monday in October.
Mississippi,1st Mond. in Aug.1st Monday in November.
Louisiana,1st Mond. in July.1st Monday in January.

[Pg 55]

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Published by Robert S. Davis Boston. H. Morse Sc.

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SOUTH AMERICA.

1. What productions are found in greater perfection in America, than in the other parts of the earth?2. What are the principal divisions of South America? 3. In whatpart is Amazonia? 4. By what name is the northeastern part of theRepublic of Colombia known? 5. By what name is the western partdistinguished?

6. How is Colombia situated? 7. Peru? 8. Bolivia? 9. Guiana? 10.Brazil? 11. The United Provinces? 12. Chili? 13. Patagonia? 14 to 21.How are these countries severally bounded?

22. What range of mountains extends the whole length of South Americafrom north to south? 23. Near which coast is this range? 24. What arethe names of the highest peaks? 25. In which country is Chimborazo?26. What mountains are there in the world higher than Chimborazo?27. Which way from Chimborazo is Cotopaxi? 28. Is Cotopaxi a volcano?29. In what direction is Pichinca from Chimborazo?

30. How is Lake Titicaca situated? 31. Which way from it is LakeNicaragua in North America? 32. Where is Lake Parima? 33. Lake Maracaibo?

34. How is the Bay of Panama situated? 35. Bay St. Joseph? 36. Bay AllSaints? 37. How is Gulf St. George situated? 38. Gulf of Guayaquil?39. Gulf of Darien?

40. What large river discharges its waters into the Atlantic, underthe equator? 41. Where does it rise? 42. What is its course? 43. Whatrivers flow into it from the south? 44. What from the north? 45. Inwhat country is the river De la Plata? 46. Which is the largest riverin the world, and what is remarkable concerning it?

47. What is the latitude of the mouth of the river St. Francisco?48. What is its course? 49. What river runs between Colombia and Guiana?50. Between Bolivia and Brazil?

51. Which of the Grand Divisions of the earth is most celebrated forthe magnitude of its lakes and rivers?

52. Where are the Straits of Magellan? 53. What land do they separatefrom Patagonia? 54. With the waters of what oceans do they communicate?

55. What is the northern cape of South America? 56. The eastern cape?57. The southern cape? 58. The western cape? 59. Where is Cape Pillar?60. Cape Orange? 61. Cape St. Antonio? 62. What capes are near themouth of Parayba river?

63. What Peninsula is situated on the eastern coast of Patagonia?64. What on the western coast?

65. Where is the island Trinidad? 66. What is its latitude andlongitude? 67. What islands in the Pacific ocean are near the Equator?68. What is their longitude? 69. What islands lie east from theCaribbean sea?

70. What is the situation of the Island Chiloe? 71. Juan Fernandez,or Robinson Crusoe’s island? 72. What islands are east from Terra delFuego? 73. What is the latitude and longitude of the islands Felix andAmbrose? 74. Where is Sandwich Land?

75. In what country is Cayenne? 76. Carracas? 77. Popayan? 78. La Paz?79. Valparaiso? 80. Lima? 81. Assumption? 82. At the mouth of whatriver is Buenos Ayres? 83. What is the latitude of Quito? 84. Whatvolcanic mountains are in its vicinity? 85. What town in Bolivia is onthe coast? 86. In what portion of Brazil is Paraibo? 87. Rio Janeiro?88. What river flows into the Atlantic ocean, half way between Caiteand Seara?

89. In what zone are the United Provinces, Chili, and Patagonia?90. In what zone does the larger portion of South America lie? 91.Potosi is celebrated for its silver mines; where is it? 92. Which ismore northwardly, Paraguay or Banda Oriental? 93. Peru or Chili? 94.Colombia or Bolivia? 95. What would be the course of a ship in sailingfrom the Galapago islands to the mouth of the Amazon river?[Pg 58]

South America is an exceedingly rich and fertile country, producing inabundance gold and silver, and the necessaries and luxuries of life.

The most prominent feature of this country is the range of mountainswhich extends through the western part from north to south. The regionto the west from this range is an immense plateau, elevated twelvethousand feet above the level of the sea; owing to this elevation,this tract enjoys a cool and healthy climate. To the east from thesemountains is an extensive marshy and sandy plain, intersected byimmense rivers.

The Andes mountains are most interesting on account of theinexhaustible treasures which they contain. One mountain alone has morethan three hundred openings from which silver is obtained.

Colombia is a republic, with a government similar to that of theUnited States. The face of the country is greatly diversified withmountains, valleys, and immense plains. The climate of the plainsand coast is unhealthy; that of the more elevated parts, salubrious.Cotton, grain, coffee, tobacco, gold, silver, and tropical fruits areproduced.

Guiana is a level and fertile country, with an unhealthful climate.The productions are sugar, cocoa, coffee, indigo, &c.

Peru possesses a mild and healthy climate and fertile soil, exceptalong the sea coast, where it is level, barren, and unhealthy. Theeast part consists of immense plains, called pampas, covered withgrass. These pampas resemble the prairies of the United States. Theproductions are gold, silver, sugar, grain, and Jesuit or Peruvianbark, celebrated for its medicinal qualities.

Bolivia became an independent country in the year 1825, with arepublican government, and was named after Simon Bolivar, the firstPresident. It was once a part of Peru, and, in its climate, soil, andproductions, resembles that country.

Chili, being bounded on the east by the lofty and snow capped Andeson one side, and the ocean on the other, never feels excessive heat,though situated nearly in the torrid zone. The climate therefore iscool and healthy, and the soil is fertile. The seasons in this countryare different from those of the United States. Spring begins inSeptember, summer in December, autumn in March, and winter in June. Theproductions are gold, silver, copper, tin, corn, wine, maize, sugar,sweet potatoes, and a variety of fruits.

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (37)

ARAUCANIAN VILLAGE.

In the southern part of Chili there still exists a tribe of Indians,which the Spaniards have not yet been able to conquer. These are calledthe Araucanian Indians. They are a warlike and brave people, residingin scattered villages. They possess excellent horses, which are trainedto martial use.

Patagonia is a cold and inhospitable country, of which little isknown. It is inhabited by a race of Indians who are of a giganticsize. The first discoverers, called them Pata-gones which meansclumsy-hoofed. From this circ*mstance the country derived its name.

The United Provinces abound in pampas, some of which are one hundredmiles in extent, which are inhabited by wild Indians, and affordpasturage to herds of wild cattle. The climate is salubrious, and mostof the fruits and vegetables of the torrid and temperate zones areproduced.

Brazil is the largest of the countries of South America, and is leveland fertile, producing tobacco, sugar, indigo, coffee, and pepper.Diamonds are found here. In the interior, vast herds of wild cattleabound. They are hunted for their hides, which form the chief exportarticle of the country.[Pg 59]

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Published by Robert S. Davis, Boston. H. Morse Sc.

[Pg 61]

EUROPE.

1. For what is Europe celebrated? 2. What are its principaldivisions? 3. How is Denmark[7]bounded? 4 to 19. How is each of the other divisions bounded?20. In what part of Europe is Russia? 21. Spain? 22. Norway?[8]

23. Where are the Ural mountains? 24. What mountains are in Italy?25. In Switzerland? 26. In Austria? 27. Where are the Pyrenees? 23. How arethe Hæmus mountains situated? 29. The Dofrafeld mountains? 30. WhatVolcano is on the island Sicily? 31. Where is Mount Hecla, another volcano?

32. Where is lake Constance? 33. What lakes in Russia lie between theGulf of Finland and the White sea? 34. Where is lake Ilmen? 35. Lake Wener?

36. Between what countries is the Gulf of Bothnia? 37. What bay isnorth from Spain? 38. What gulf lies between Italy and Austria? 39. Howis the Gulf of Taranto situated? 40. Gulf of Riga?

41. What seas between Europe and Asia? 42. What sea south from Europe?43. How is the Baltic situated? 44. The White sea?

45. The Ural river rises in the Ural mountains, and forms, in part, theeastern boundary of Russia; into what sea does it flow? 46. What riversrise in Spain, and flow through Portugal? 47. What other rivers risein Spain? 48. What rivers intersect the Netherlands? 49. What river ofFrance flows south into the Mediterranean?

50. In what country is the Volga river? 51. Into what does it flow?52. What city is at its mouth? 53. What rivers in Prussia? 54. What riversflow into the White sea? 55. Into the Bay of Biscay?

56. What connects the Mediterranean sea with the Atlantic ocean?57. The Sea of Marmora with the Archipelago? 58. With the Black sea?59. Where are the Straits of Caffa? 60. Where is Skager Rack?

61. Where is North Cape? 62. Cape La Hogue? 63. Cape Matapan? 64. Whatcapes of Spain are on the coast of the Mediterranean? 65. Which is morenorthwardly, Cape Ortegal or Finisterre? 66. What cape is the southwestpart of Portugal? 67. What is the latitude of the Rock of Lisbon?

68. What islands in the Mediterranean between Italy and Spain?69. What island lies south from the Archipelago sea? 70. What island liesnortheast from Greece? 71. Where is the island Cyprus? 72. Where areUshant and Bellisle islands?

73. Which way from Ireland is Iceland? 74. What islands on the coastof Norway? 75. Which way from Spain are the British Isles? 76. Whatislands lie in the Baltic sea? 77. Where are the Shetland and Feroeislands?

78. What peninsula extends from the southern part of Russia into theBlack sea? 79. Where is the peninsula, called The Morea? 80. Whatcountries in the south of Europe constitute peninsulas? 81. Whatcountries in the north constitute peninsulas?

82. How is St. Petersburg situated? 83. What is its latitude? 84. NewYork is situated about 41 degrees latitude, north; what city of Spainis in about the same latitude? 85. How can a person go by water fromSt. Petersburg to Venice?

86. In what part of Europe is Lapland? 87. Finland? 88. Hungary? 89.How is Paris situated? 90. Madrid? 91. Rome? 92. Constantinople? 93.Copenhagen? 94. Bergen? 95. Konigsburg? 96. Amsterdam? 97. Hamburg? 98.Stockholm? 99. Vienna? 100. Lisbon? 101. Geneva?

102. What direct communication is there between the Bay of Biscayand the Mediterranean sea? 103. Where is the Maelstrom, a formidablewhirlpool? 104. West from what countries of Europe is England? 105.What countries of Europe are south from England?

106. In what zone does Europe principally lie? 107. What countriesnorth from the 50th parallel of latitude? 108. What south? 109.Which of the countries of Europe has no sea coast? 110. Which of thecountries of Europe is divided into two parts by Germany?[9]

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The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (39)

LAPLANDERS.RUSSIANS.

Europe is peculiarly favored in its natural advantages for commerce,there being many bays and inland seas extending in such manner intothe interior that there is scarcely a town more than four hundredmiles from some navigable bay or sea. It has also many navigablerivers. These advantages have contributed to the growth of the inlandcities, which are far in advance of those of our own country in size,population, and elegance.

The climate is excessively cold in the northern parts, especially inLapland and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden, and Russia. In thiscold region the rein-deer is the principal support of the inhabitants.Its flesh affords them food; its skin, clothes; and its sinews, twineand thread. It is used also as horses and oxen are in this country, fordraught and travelling. It is capable of travelling two hundred milesin a day.

The southern parts of Norway and Sweden have a broken andsandy soil; the harvests are precarious, and the rearing of cattle ispractised with considerable success. These countries are celebrated fortheir forests, which produce vast quantities of pine and fir lumber forexportation. Tar, pitch, hemp, tobacco, and flax are produced.

Russia is the largest empire in the world. It is a level country.The climate and soil are necessarily various. The northern parts are coldand barren, and the southern, peculiarly fertile. Hemp, flax, grain,iron, tar, and furs, are exported in large quantities.

Poland was formerly a powerful independent nation; but in the year1772 it was unjustly divided between Russia, Austria, and Prussia.Russian Poland has lately made a brave but unsuccessful attempt to regainits independence, and is now again under the tyrannical power of Russia.

The central part of Europe, comprising Denmark, Prussia, Germany,The Netherlands, Switzerland, and Austria is a fertile andhealthy country, producing a great variety of the necessaries andluxuries of life. A large part is adapted to grazing. Grain, wine,flax, madder, amber, gold, silver, and copper, are produced. Poland hasa noted salt mine, which is represented on page 3.

Italy and Turkey, being situated in the southern part of Europe,possess a warm and healthy climate and fertile soil, producing vines,grain, olives, wheat, figs, and oil. The former is one of the mostdelightful countries in the world, and was once the seat of the artsand sciences. The latter, comprising Greece, was in ancient times, theparent of learning and the arts, but is now in a state of servitude totyrannical rulers.

France is a fertile and beautiful country. Its productions aregrain, wines, olives, and various fruits. The country is noted for itsmanufactures of silk and wool, which form the chief exports of thenation. Paris, the capital, is esteemed one of the most luxurious andrefined cities in the world, and takes the lead in fashion. France ishonored as being the birth-place of Lafayette,the companion and friend of Washington.

Spain and Portugal are so favored by nature, that by industry andgood government, they would soon be the most productive countriesin the world; but through the indolence of the inhabitants, and thegovernment of despotic rulers, they are degraded, weak, and ignorant.Wheat, rice, silk, hemp, olives, oranges, lemons, figs, &c. are produced.[Pg 63]

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BRITISH ISLES.

1. The British Isles constitute a Kingdom; how is it governed?

2. Name the countries of the British Isles. 3. How is England bounded?4. Are there any lofty mountains in England?

5. What sea lies west from the northern part of England? 6. What sealies east from England? 7. What is a Channel? 8. At the mouth ofwhat river is Bristol channel? 9. Where is the Wash? 10. Where is theBritish channel? 11. Straits of Dover?

12. What river forms part of the northern boundary of England? 13. Inwhat part are the rivers Tyne and Tees? 14. Into what do they flow?15. What rivers flow into the Humber? 16. Where is Severn river?

17. What rivers flow into the Irish sea? 18. What into the Wash?19. What into the British channel?

20. Where is St. Edmands’ point? 21. Start point? 22. What point at themouth of the Bristol channel? 23. What point at the southern extremityof England? 24. What is the southern extremity called?

25. How is the Isle of Wight situated? 26. Near what point is LundyIsland? 27. What is the latitude and longitude of Walney island?28. How is it situated?

29. On what river is London, the capital of the kingdom? 30. On whatriver is Liverpool? 31. Oxford, (noted for its university)? 32. Leeds,(celebrated for woollen goods)? 33. Manchester, (famous for cottongoods)? 34. Sheffield, (noted for cutlery)? 35. Where is Kidderminster,(famous for carpets)? 36. How is Gloucester, (celebrated for pins)situated? 37. Where is Birmingham, (noted for hardware)?

38. Which way is London from Liverpool? 39. Liverpool from Manchester?40. Kidderminster from Birmingham? 41. Which way from Leeds toSheffield? 42. What town is opposite to Calais in France?

43. Between what parallels of latitude is England? 44. From what islongitude calculated on this map? 45. What is the longitude of Dover?46. Liverpool?

47. Which way from England is Scotland? 48. How is Scotland bounded?

49. Where is Ben Nevis mountain? 50. Lake Shin?

51. Where is North channel? 52. What waters does it connect? 53. Whatcountries does it separate?

54. What is a Frith? 55. Where is the Frith of Clyde? 56. What frithsin the northern part of Scotland? 57. What in the eastern?

58. What rivers in the southern part? 59. What rivers between MurrayFrith and Frith of Tay?

60. Where is Cape Wrath? 61. St. Abbe’s Head? 62. Kinnaird’s Head?

63. What islands lie west from Scotland? 64. What are the names ofsome of the largest? 65. Which is the most northwardly? 66. Where isAnan island? 67. What islands lie north from Scotland? 68. Which wayare the Orkney from the Shetland Islands? [In answering this questionthe latitude and longitude marked on the scale of those islands mustbe compared with that of the whole map, or the map of Europe must bereferred to.]

69. What water communication is there between the Frith of Forth andClyde river?

70. How is Edinburgh, the capital, situated? 71. Glasgow? 72. Dundee?73. Perth? 74. Aberdeen?

75. How is Wales bounded? 76. What mountains in the northwestern part?77. Where is Cardigan bay?

78. Milford Haven? 79. St. David’s Head? 80. Anglesea island? 81. Whatisland is west from Anglesea?

82. How is Cardigan situated? 83. Bangor? 84. Carmarthen?85. Montgomery?

86. What ocean bounds Ireland on the north, west, and south? 87. Whatsea lies east? 88. How is Ireland separated from Wales? 89. FromScotland?

90. In what part of Ireland is Lough (or lake) Neagh? 91. What Loughlies in the interior? 92. What Loughs in the western part? 93. Where isLough Foyle?

94. What bays are on the western coast? 95. What on the eastern?96. Where is Bear Haven?

97. What islands lie north from Ireland? 98. Where is the Isle of Man?99. What islands in Galway bay?

100. What are the principal rivers of Ireland? 101. On what river isLimerick? 102. Drogheda? 103. Kinmore?

104. In what part is Cork? 105. Dublin? 106. Galway?

107. Which way from London is Edinburgh? 108. Which way is Cork?109. From Cork to Liverpool? 110. Dublin to Manchester? 111. Kidderminsterto Limerick? 112. In what zone are the British Islands?

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BRITAIN.

The British Kingdom, besides England and Scotland, Ireland and adjacentisles, possesses many large colonies in all parts of the world, whichoffer great advantages to commerce.

The government is a limited monarchy. The Executive Power is confidedto the King, and Legislation to the two houses of Parliament, viz. TheHouse of Lords, composed of clergymen and nobles whose titles arehereditary, and The House of Commons, who are chosen by the people.

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (41)

ACCURATE VIEW OF A PORTION OF
THE LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY.

England is one of the most beautifully diversified countries in theworld, and possesses a fertile soil, which is cultivated in the mostperfect manner. The climate is moist, and subject to frequent andsudden changes; but the extremes of heat and cold are not so great asin New England. Tin, copper, lead, and iron, are found. Her coal minesare so productive that they supply fuel for the whole country, andimmense quantities for exportation.

The English are brave, intelligent, industrious, enterprising, and areproud of their country. Commerce and manufactures are carried on withvigor, the first extending to every part of the world, and the latterrivalling those of all other countries.

Canals abound and railroads are becoming general. Steam power is muchused in these roads, by which means a great weight can be drawn, andthe speed greatly increased. The cut above shows a coach, drawn on thisroad by a locomotive steam engine.

London, the capital of the kingdom, is the most opulent and commercialcity in the world, containing about 1,300,000 inhabitants. There are inthis many splendid buildings, among which are Westminster Abbey, theTower, and St. Paul’s Cathedral.

Scotland is greatly diversified. The northern part is mountainous andbleak, and is called the Highlands. The southern part is called theLowlands, and resembles England.

The Scotch are a hardy, brave, and industrious people. They are greatlovers of learning, and give much for the extension of education.

Edinburgh, the capital, is divided into old and new towns. The formerconsists of ancient buildings, placed on the top of an eminence whichoverlooks the new town, which is well laid out, in a modern style.The city is celebrated for its university.

Ireland in soil and climate resembles England. The country ismoderately uneven, and is fertile. Potatoes are abundant, and form agreat part of the food of the inhabitants.

The Irish are brave, hospitable, and active, but enjoy very fewadvantages for education.[Pg 67]

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ASIA.

1. For what is Asia remarkable? 2. Which of the countries of Asia islargest? 3. In what part is Arabia? 4. China?

5. What countries lie between Turkey and Hindostan? 6. How is Siberiabounded? 7. Arabia? 8. Turkey? 9. Persia? 10. Independent Tartary?11. Hindostan? 12. Afghanistan? 13. Beloochistan? 14. China? 15.Birman Empire?[10] 16. Siam? 17. Anam?[11]18. The Caucasian country, or Circassia and Georgia? 19. Malaya?

20. What ranges of mountains are on the boundaries of Siberia?21. Where are the Caucasus mountains? 22. Where are the Gaut mountains?23. In what part of Asia are the highest mountains in the world, andwhat are they called?

24. Where is Lake Baikal? 25. How is Lake Zaisan situated? 26. What sealies between the Black Sea and the Sea of Aral?

27. Where is the Red Sea? 28. Sea of Arabia? 29. What bay lies westfrom the Birman Empire? 30. How is the Yellow Sea situated? 31. Whatsea between Corea and the island Niphon? 32. Where is the Sea of Ochotsk?

33. How is the Bay of Bengal situated? 34. Which way are the PersianGulf and the Gulf of Ormus from Persia? 35. Where is the Gulf Tonquin?36. Gulf of Siam?

37. Two rivers flow into the Persian Gulf; what are their names?38. Where is the Indus river? 39. Where does it rise? 40. Into what doesit flow? 41. What rivers rise in the Himmaleh mountains, and flow intothe northern extremity of the Bay of Bengal? 42. What rivers flow intothe sea of Aral? 43. What are the principal rivers of China? 44. OfSiberia? 45. Of the Birman Empire?

46. What waters do the Straits of Babelmandel connect? 47. What islandsdo the Straits of Sunda separate? 48. Straits of Malacca? 49. Whatstraits separate Asia from North America?

50. Where is Cape Comorin? 51. Where is Cape Lopatka? 52. What is itslatitude? 53. What cape at the northeastern extremity of Asia?

54. What island lies at the mouth of the Straits of Babelmandel?55. Where is Ceylon island? 56. What is its longitude? 57. What islandslie in the Bay of Bengal? 58. What is the latitude and longitude of Hainanisland?

59. What island is crossed by the tropic of Cancer? 60. What arecrossed by the equator? 61. What are the principal of the PhilippineIsles? 62. The Japan Isles? 63. The Moluccas or Spice islands?64. Where is Nova Zembla?[12] 65. Where are the Ladrone and Carolineislands? 66. The Maldives? 67. The Japan islands and Empire?

68. Where is Mecca? 69. Ispahan? 70. Calcutta? 71. Ava? 72. Bencoolen?73. Manilla? 74. Jerusalem? 75. Madras? 76. Tobolsk? 77. Pekin?78. Canton? 79. Rangoon? 80. Smyrna?

81. Which way from Canton is Mecca? 82. From Tobolsk to Pekin? 83. FromRangoon to Calcutta? 84. What is the soil of Asia? 85. China isan empire; how is it governed? 86. Does any part of Asia lie in thefrigid zone? 87. What is the climate of the frigid zone?[Pg 70]

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (43)

 CHINESE.TURKS.

Asia was the first inhabited quarter of the world, and is the largestof the divisions of the Eastern continent. It is distinguished as thecountry where man was created; where Christ was born, and achieved theplan of man’s redemption; and where the Jews received from Jehovah, theHoly Bible. The northern part of this ancient country is exceedinglycold and almost entirely covered with snow, while the southern is awarm region, and with the exception of Arabia, possesses a fertilesoil, watered by numerous rivers. The region between these twoextremes, comprehending Independent and Chinese Tartary, is an immensedesert, except that part called Thibet, where the soil is moderatelyfertile, and the climate healthful.

Arabia is almost wholly a desert country, with a hot atmosphere, andis unfit for the residence of man, except along the coasts of the RedSea and Indian Ocean, where the soil is fertile, and yields wheat,corn, barley, tobacco, dates, and oranges. This country is famous forproducing the best horses in the world.

That portion of Turkey which is in Asia, is beautifully diversifiedwith fertile plains, mountains, and valleys. The climate is excellent.Grapes, mulberries, wheat, barley, and tobacco, flourish here. Thepopulation is composed of descendants of various nations; but the Turksare the most numerous in the cities, and possess the principal wealthof the country.

In Persia, the most remarkable feature is the want of forestsand rivers. There are many desert places, although some spots areexceedingly fertile. During the summer months the climate is hot, andthe country is subject to a hot wind called the Samiel, which is sopoisonous that animals and travellers are killed by it, unless theyperceive its approach, and fall to the ground until it has passed.

Hindostan, or India within the Ganges, is nearly as large as theUnited States, and must therefore embrace many varieties of soil andclimate. The productions are rice, cotton, oranges, lemons, figs,pomegranates, sugar cane, opium, indigo, and tobacco. Horses, sheep,elephants, and the royal tiger, and almost all kinds of ferociousanimals, are found here, except the lion. A great part of this countryis under the dominion of the British East India Company.

Calcutta is the largest city, and is supposed to contain 650,000inhabitants, a great many of whom are Europeans. It carries on anextensive commerce with all parts of the world.

The Birman Empire, Malaya, Siam, Tannasserim,and Anam, have commonly been comprehended under the general name ofIndia beyond the Ganges; and the country is little known, except on thecoast. In this country, owing to the influence of heat and moisture,the soil is exceedingly fertile. The productions are nearly the same asthose of Hindostan.

China is celebrated for its immense population, for the ingenuityof its numerous manufacturers, for its many canals, for the greatantiquity of its laws, and for its reserve and jealousy of the peopleof other nations. The chief productions are cotton, rice, and tea; andall the necessaries of life are cultivated. Tea and China ware are theprincipal exports.

Canton is the chief city, and is the port where American and Englishvessels are admitted to trade.[Pg 71]

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AFRICA.

1. Is our knowledge of Africa as extensive as of other countries?2. What countries lie in the northern part? 3. What countries on the coastof the Red Sea? 4. What countries in the southern part? 5. What in theinterior? 6. What deserts in the northwestern part? 7. In the eastern?8. Where is Liberia? 9. How is Egypt bounded?

10. What mountains are in the western part of Africa? 11. Whatmountains in the interior? 12. Where is Mount Atlas? 13. Table mountain?

14. What Lake lies in the interior of Africa? 15. Where is Lake Moravi?

16. What Sea lies north from Africa? 17. Where is the Red Sea? 18. TheGulf of Guinea? 19. Lagoa or Lorenzo bay? 20. Table bay? 21. Gulf of Sidra?

22. Where is Mozambique channel? 23. Straits of Gibraltar? 24. Straitsof Babelmandel?

25. What is the northern cape of Africa? 26. What two capes at thesouthern extremity? 27. Where is Cape Guardafui? 28. What capes are onthe coast of Zahara? 29. What are the northern and southern capes ofMadagascar?

30. By what means are springs and rivers supplied with water?31. Where does the Nile rise? 32. What is its course? 33. Into what doesit flow? 34. Near the mouth of what river is Cape Verd? 35. In whatpart of Africa is Orange river? 36. The Gambia river? 37. Where is theNiger river? [The Niger river flows east, but its mouth has not beendiscovered.]

38. What islands lie east from Morocco? 39. Where is Madagascar?40. What islands west from Madagascar? 41. Where is St. Helena? 42. Forwhat is St. Helena remarkable? 43. Which way from St. Helena isAscension?

44. What cities are situated at the mouth of the Nile? 45. Which wayfrom Cairo is Monrovia? 46. Where is Cape Town? 47. Through what townsdo the caravans pass in their route between Tombuctoo and Morocco?

48. What proportion of Africa lies in the torrid zone?49. By what is the torrid zone distinguished?

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (45)

EGYPTIANS.HOTTENTOTS.

Little is known of the geography of Africa, and this is owing to thealmost total want of navigable rivers, by which, in other countries,easy access is obtained to the interior. The desert character of thecountry is another obstacle.

Several enterprising travellers have penetrated Africa, to ascertainthe sources of its rivers, and the state of the country; among whom,Bruce, Park, Denham and Clapperton stand conspicuous.

In no country do desert and fertile lands come in so close aneighborhood as in Africa. The northern part along the Mediterraneanhas a fertile soil, but immediately south is the great desert which isentirely devoid of vegetation. In other parts of Africa fertile spotsmay be found, on the margin of streams, or scattered in the midst ofthe almost uninhabitable Desert.

The most numerous class of inhabitants are the negroes, who inhabitalmost the whole central and western parts of the country, except theDesert of Zahara. The moors inhabit the northern parts, and resemblein form and physiognomy, the natives of Europe. The Hottentots inhabitthe southern extremity of the country. The wandering Arabs live on theDesert of Zahara, which they are enabled to traverse by the aid ofthe camel. This animal requires little food, and will live many dayswithout a fresh supply of water.[Pg 74]

Egypt was anciently a powerful nation, evidences of which exist in theruins of buildings, catacombs and pyramids, which are numerous in theland. At present it is inhabited partly by barbarous tribes, and seemsto have lost its ancient grandeur.

The climate of Egypt is exceedingly hot, and the air unrefreshed byrain. The soil is fertile when sufficiently moistened, and produceswheat, barley, corn, flax, sugar-cane, olives, dates, and oranges in abundance.

The only river is the Nile, and the possession of this river is anincalculable blessing to the country, as it serves the double purposesof internal communication, and watering the country. This riverannually overflows its banks, in consequence of rain in the Abyssinianmountains, where it rises. It begins to rise about the middle of June,and spreads a muddy deluge to a great extent, on both sides of itschannel. The waters subside to their natural bed in October, leaving arich and wet manure on the surface of the ground. That part of the yearcalled the winter months, is here the most productive, the ground beingcovered with vegetation, and is so fertile during the season that ityields three crops.

Sierra Leone, so named by the Portuguese because the mountains areinfested with Lions, is an English settlement, which was commencedwith a view to extend the benefits of civilisation and Christianity tothe natives, and to afford a refuge for Africans rescued from slaveships. Freetown is the capital of the colony.

Liberia is the name given to a colony established by the AmericanColonization Society, on the western coast of Africa, three hundredmiles southeast from Sierra Leone. Great numbers of the free people ofcolor have removed from the United States to this settlement. Commerceand agriculture flourish, and efforts are made to extend the benefitsof education and the christian religion through the colony, and to thenatives. Monrovia is the chief town.

GENERAL QUESTIONS.

1. What is diameter? 2. What is circumference? 3. How isthe earth proved to be a globe or round body? 4. How many milesis it through the centre of the earth? 5. How many degrees roundit? 6. How many miles round it? 7. If you were to sail from theisland Owhyhee sixty degrees in a westerly direction, at what clusterof islands would you arrive? 8. How many degrees east and west islongitude reckoned? 9. What is the longitude of the New Hebrides?

10. Between what islands would a ship pass in sailing directly fromOtaheite to Van Dieman’s land? 11. What direction would a ship take insailing by the shortest route from Owhyhee to Canton? 12. Which waywould you sail by the shortest route from Madagascar to the FriendlyIsles? 13. Through what States would you pass in going from Mobile toCincinnati? 14. From Charleston to Albany? 15. St. Louis to Boston?

The word Antip´odes means those peoplewho live on the opposite side of the earth, and have their feet underours. 16. The inhabitants of what city of Asia are nearly antipodes tothe citizens of New Orleans?

17. How many degrees further north latitude is Liverpool than Boston?18. Madrid than Savannah? 19. Which is further south, Cape Town or RioJaneiro? 20. Which is further east, Algiers or St. Petersburg?

There is a scale of miles attached to each map; thus on the map ofMassachusetts, if you wish to find the distance, in miles, from Bostonto Providence, you must measure the distance and compare it with thescale, and it will be found to be about forty miles. Another methodis, to find the distance in degrees, and multiply the amount by 69½,because 69½ English miles make a degree.

21. How many miles is it from Boston to Middletown, Con.? 22. FromParis to London? 23. From London to Liverpool? 24. From Tombuctoo toMorocco? 25. From Madagascar to New Holland?

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WEST INDIA ISLANDS.

A fertile soil, a hot and unhealthy climate in summer, and a pleasantand healthful winter, is common to all the West India Islands. Beingsituated in the torrid zone, they produce most of the tropical fruits,spices, &c. viz. indigo, coffee, cinnamon, cocoa, cloves, pine-apples,pomegranates, oranges, lemons, limes, figs, &c.

Cuba, 700 miles long, is the largest, and belongs to Spain; itscapital, Havanna, is a place of much commerce. St. Domingo, or Hayti,is next in size. In this island the black population have establishedan independent government, and their chief magistrate is called thePresident of Hayti. Jamaica is a prominent island, highly cultivated,belonging to Great Britain; its chief town is Kingston.

Guadaloupe and Barbadoes are the principal of the Caribbee Islands.Hurricanes are common in these fertile islands.

OCEANICA.

EAST INDIA ISLANDS.

Comprise two groups of islands, viz. the Isles of Sunda and thePhilippine Islands.

Borneo is the largest of these islands.It has an unhealthy climate, and a fertile soil. The Ourang Outang,the largest of the monkey species, is common in this island.

Sumatra is a mountainous and wildcountry. Its forests abound with the elephant, rhinoceros, bear,and wild boar. Bencoolen, the only European settlement, belongs toEngland.

Java has many volcanic mountains, anunhealthy climate, and fertile soil. Batavia is the chief town, andwas founded by the Dutch.

Celebes and Gilolo, together with many of the neighboringsmaller isles, are called the Moluccas or Spice islands. All theseislands, from their broken and rocky appearance, seem to have beenformed by volcanic agency. Earthquakes are frequent. These islandsbelong to the Dutch.

The Philippine Islands are very numerous,and abound in marshes, and are frequently visited by earthquakes. Luzonis the largest of them, and Manilla is the principal town.

The East India Islands produce in abundance rice, cotton, pepper,camphor, coffee, sugar, nutmegs, cloves, sago, sandal wood, and diamonds.

AUSTRALASIA.

Embraces many large islands, lying in the south Pacific Ocean.

New Holland is the largest island inthe world, having a greater extent of surface than the United States.It is at present but little known. Its native inhabitants are said toapproach nearer to the brute creation than any other savages.

Van Dieman’s Land is a fertile island,belonging to the British. Of New Guinealittle is known.

New Britain and New Irelandhave a fertile soil, and produce abundance of nutmegs. The inhabitantsresemble those of New Holland in their characters. They are exceedinglywarlike.

POLYNESIA.

This name is given to those islands lying in the Pacific ocean betweenAsia, the West India and Australasian islands on the one side, andAmerica on the other. In this division Owhyhee, one of the Sandwichislands, is the largest. The inhabitants of the Sandwich, Ladrone andNavigator’s islands, are notorious thieves. Those of the Friendly, theSociety, the Pelew islands, are hospitable and kind. Otaheite is thelargest of the Society islands, and has a missionary establishment, ashas also, Owhyhee. Many of the people have embraced Christianity.

The climate and soil of these islands are peculiarly adapted to theproduction of numerous fruits and necessaries of life. The productionsare bread fruit, sugar, cocoa-nuts, oranges, limes, sandal wood,plantain, yams, and sweet potatoes.

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ELEMENTAL ASTRONOMY,

IN WHICH THE SCIENCE IS CONSIDERED
PRINCIPALLY IN ITS RELATION TO THE EARTH.

THE SEASONS.

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (46)

Astronomy is the science which treats of the System of theUniverse.

The system of which the Earth is a part, is called the SolarSystem; and is composed of the Sun, the Planets, Satellites,and Comets.

The Sun is the source of light and heat to the whole system,and is the centre of motion, round which all the other bodies revolvefrom west to east.

The Planets are opaque or dark bodies, which revolve roundthe Sun at different distances. There are eleven planets, viz. Mercury,Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Herschell,Ceres, Pallas, Juno, and Vesta.

Satellites are opaque bodies movinground the planets, in company with the planets round the Sun. They aregenerally called moons. There are eighteen Satellites, viz. the Earthhas one, Jupiter four, Saturn seven, and Herschell six.

Comets are bright bodies moving round theSun. Coming from a far distant part of the universe, they approach verynear the Sun, and then return with equal swiftness. Their nature is butlittle known.

The paths of the planets and comets round the Sun, and ofthe satellites round their planets, are called their ORBITS.

Those stars which always appear in the same situation in relationto each other are called Fixed Stars. About 1000can be seen at once by the naked eye, and by the help of the telescope manymillions may be seen. Their sizes are little known, but probably someof them are many million times larger than the earth. They are notconsidered a part of our Solar System, but are supposed to be Suns ofother systems, round which other planets revolve.

A planet turns on its axis (like a wheel upon an axletree,) and eachturn is the cause of day and night. It is day to that half of theplanet which is toward the Sun, and night to the other half. Eachrevolution of a planet round the Sun makes its year; but because theorbits are not equal, the years of all the planets are not the same.Thus Herschell’s year is more than eighty-three of our years.

The axis of the earth is not perpendicular while the earth is revolvinground the sun, but slanting, as is seen in the cut above. Whilst theearth is passing between the points marked March 20, and Sept. 23, thenorth pole inclines toward the sun, and then the northern hemisphereenjoys more of his rays than the southern. Consequently it is the warmseason in the northern, and the cold season in the southern hemisphere;and from 23d Sept. to 20th March, as the south pole is toward the sun,it is the warm season in the southern, and the cold season in thenorthern hemisphere.

The Earth is nearly a round body, andrevolves on its axis, once every twenty-four hours, from west toeast, which causes the Sun and stars to appear to rise in the east,and set in the west.

The earth’s surface contains about two hundred millions of squaremiles, and its orbit is ninety-six millions of miles from the Sun.The time occupied by the earth in its revolution round the Sun, isabout 365 days, which space of time constitutes its year.

Planets and satellites do not shine with their own light, but merelyreflect the light of the Sun; of course only one half can be brightat a time, which must be that half which is toward the Sun.

When the moon is on the side of the earth opposite to the Sun, thewhole bright side of the moon is toward the earth, and it is then fullmoon; but when the Sun and moon are on the same side of the earth, thedark side of the moon is toward the earth, and it is new moon.[Pg 77]

The earth’s satellite or moon, revolves roundthe earth in about twenty-nine and a half days, and this causes thephases or changes of the moon. It turns on its axis in the same spaceof time.

PHASES OF THE MOON.

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (47)

The inner circle represents the moon in her different positions asenlightened by the Sun.

The outer circle represents the moon’s appearance in her differentpositions as seen from the earth.

An Eclipse means a temporary obscuration of the Sun or moon,or a part of either, from our sight. When the Sun or moon is wholly hidfrom our sight, the eclipse is called total, and when only a part isobscured, it is called partial.

An eclipse of the Sun is caused by the passage of the moon betweenthe Sun and the earth, and can never take place except at the time ofnew moon.

To understand this more fully, observe the cut below, and suppose aperson standing on the earth at a place where the shadow of the moon fallsupon the earth; he cannot see the Sun, because the moon is between himand the Sun.

ECLIPSE OF THE SUN.

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (48)

The moon being an opaque body, does not shine, when by any cause therays of the Sun are prevented from reaching her surface. Thus when themoon arrives in her orbit at a point where the rays of the Sun areintercepted by the earth, she is in the shadow of the earth, and is notenlightened by the Sun. Therefore;

An eclipse of the moon is caused by the moon’s passing through theshadow of the earth. This can never happen except at the time of full moon.

ECLIPSE OF THE MOON.

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (49)

TIDES.

Tides are regular motions or successive risingand falling of the waters of oceans and seas. They are caused chiefly by theattraction of the moon, which draws up the waters as seen in cutNo. 1. Thus, as the moon revolves round the earth, its attracting ordrawing power passes with it over the surface of the ocean, and theelevation of the waters, following that attraction, is drawn alonguntil the shore or coast of a country stops its progress; this causes,all along the coast, a rising of the water, and it is then called hightide. The tides occur twice in twenty-four hours.

The attraction of the moon in producing tides is affected in somedegree by the sun. When the sun and moon attract in unison, the tidesare very high; and when the sun tends to counteract the action of themoon the tides are not so high. Cut No. 2.

The highest tide is called spring tide, andthe lowest, neap tide. These tides follow each other in regularsuccession, the daily tides gradually decreasing during fifteen days,from the highest to the lowest; and during the next fifteen days,increasing from the lowest to the highest.

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (50)

MOON’S ORBIT.

No. 1.

The Boston School Atlas, Embracing a Compendium of Geography (51)

MOON’S ORBIT.

No. 2.

[Pg 78]

QUESTIONS IN REVIEW OF THE COMPENDIUM.

Commencing at Page 9.

1. What does the surface of the earth most naturally appear to be?2. What is the difference between an island and a continent? 3. Whatproofs are there that the ocean is not bottomless? 4. What is the chiefcharacteristic of the waters of the ocean? 5. Why is the height ofplaces calculated from the level of the sea? 6. What is the extent ofeach of the divisions of the ocean? 7. What is the prominent featureof the surface of the land? 8. What is a Defile?—9. A Plateau? 10.Whence is the name Volcano derived? 11. What is the longest range ofmountains in the world? 12. At what height does the region of perpetualsnow commence—13. Why do geographers disagree concerning the length ofrivers? 14. For what is the river Amazon remarkable? 15. From whenceare the waters of springs and rivers? 16. How many classes of lakesare there? 17. Describe the differences in the classes. 18. Whatgives rise to the opinion that there are extensive sheets of waterunderground? 19. How are mines formed? 20. What is remarkable of theclimate of America in comparison with that of the eastern continent—21. For what is Europe distinguished? 22. Asia? 23. Africa? 24. To whomdo the West India Islands principally belong? 25. What are Politicaldivisions? 26. Name their distinguishing traits. 27. What religions areprofessed by the inhabitants of the earth? 28. What are characteristicfeatures of the different races of men? 29. What do you understand bySavages?—30. Barbarians?—31. Civilized nations?—32. Enlightened?33. What are the distinguishing features of North America? 34. By whomwas it inhabited before its discovery by Columbus? 35. For what are theBritish and Russian Possessions valuable? 36. Describe Mexico? 37.What are the productions of Guatimala? 38. From what causes are theUnited States divided into groups or sections? 39. For what are theNew England States distinguished? 40. Why have Maine and New Hampshirebetter advantages for commerce than Vermont? 41. What is said of theoldest New England State? 42. What buildings in Boston are venerated asbeing intimately connected with the history of the American Revolution?43. What is said of the commercial advantages of Boston? 44. What issaid of Connecticut? 45. What is peculiar in the government of RhodeIsland? 46. What is the characteristic of the Middle States? 47. Whatis the staple production? 48. What is said of the rank of New YorkState? 49. Which is the most commercial city in the United States?

50. What is said of New Jersey? 51. Whence is the name Pennsylvania,derived? 52. What is said of the agriculture of this State? 53. Whatarticle is obtained for fuel? 54. What are the productions of Delaware?55. What is said of the husbandry and productions of Maryland? 56.What is the chief commercial city, and what are its exports? 57. Whatis said of the District of Columbia? 58. What is said of the WesternStates?—59. Of the soil, climate and agriculture of Ohio? 60. Ofwhat is the population composed and what is its character? 61. Whatis the commercial capital of the Western States? 62. What is said ofIndiana?—63. Illinois?—64. Missouri?—65. Kentucky?—66. Tennessee? 67.What are the staple productions of the Southern States? 68. For what isVirginia distinguished? 69. What is said of North Carolina?—70. SouthCarolina and its inhabitants? 71. How many varieties are there of thestaple of South Carolina? 72. What is said of New Orleans? 73. For whatare the mountains of South America valuable? 74. Which of the countriesare republics? 75. What is said of the Araucanian Indians? 76. Forwhat are the pampas of South America valuable? 77. In which part arediamonds found? 78. What is said of the climate and productions ofthe northern countries of Europe?—79. Of the central part?—80. Of thesouthern part? 81. For what is France noted and honored? 82. What isthe face of the country and climate of England?—83. Of Scotland? 84. OfIreland?—85. to 87. What is said of the inhabitants of each? 88. Whatis said of London?—89. Of Edinburgh? 90. What is the general characterof the soil and climate of Asia? 91. What is said of Arabia?—92. OfTurkey?—93. Of Persia?—94. Of Hindostan?—95. Of India beyond theGanges?—96. Of China? 97. What is said of the soil of Africa?—98.Of the inhabitants?—99. Of Egypt?—100. Of the Nile?—101. Of SierraLeone, and Liberia? 102. What are the soil and climate of the WestIndia Islands?—103. The productions? 104. Which has established anindependent government? 105. What groups of islands are called EastIndia Islands? 106. What are some of the peculiarities of theseislands? 107. What is said of New Holland? 108. Of Van Dieman’s Land?109. Of New Britain and Ireland? 110. What is the character of thepeople of the Ladrone and Navigator’s islands? 111. Of the Friendly,the Society, and the Pelew islands? 112. What is said of the climateand productions of the Polynesian islands?

Transcriber's Notes:

The cover image is in the public domain.

Uncertain or antiquated spellings or ancient words were not corrected.

Typographical errors have been silently corrected and also variations in spelling of some place names.

The Table of Contents was added by the transcriber, it is not part of the original text.

FOOTNOTES:

[1]The capital of the United States is Washington,where the President resides. Congress assembles here to make the lawsby which the people are governed.

[2]The frequent questions on the counties, are not inserted, with anintention of requiring pupils to retain in their memories the whole ofthem;—but rather that no pupil should omit to learn those of his ownstate. This is all that should be required of them on reviewing theirlessons.

[3]The Electors are chosen by the people in all the States within thethirty-four days preceding the first Wednesday in December, in whichan election of President and Vice President takes place. On that dayall the Electors give in their votes. No person can be an Electorwho holds any office under the government of the United States. ThePresident and VicePresident are chosen for the term of four years, commencing onthe fourth day of March.

[4]The Governors of Territories are appointed by the President, with theconsent of the Senate, for the term of three years.

[5]Senators and Representatives are chosen by the people.

[6]Senators and Representatives are chosen by the people.

[7]Greenland in North America, and Iceland, belong to Denmark.

[8]Norway is now a province, subject to Sweden.

[9]Germany is a confederation consisting of twenty-eight small States, theEmpire of Austria, and the Kingdom of Prussia. Each of these States,&c. is governed by its own laws and magistrates. The GeneralGovernment is composed of Deputies from each State, called The Diet, whichin some respects resembles the Congress of the United States, of America.

[10]The Birman Empire formerly embraced Tannasserim, which has recently been ceded to Great Britain.

[11]Anam comprises the Provinces of Tonquin, Cochin China, Laos, and Cambodia.

[12]Nova Zembla is an European island.

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